African-American Histories, Biographies, and Fictionalized Biographies
for Children and Young Adults
A Bibliography
[Includes books by non-African-American authors and illustrators]
Audrey Thompson

Back to 4111 Spring 2001 Syllabus and Biography Project.

This bibliography has been compiled as a resource for elementary, middle school, and high school teachers who wish to introduce their students to a variety of biographical sources on important African-American figures, as well as for student teachers, undergraduates, graduate students, professors, and other scholars interested in children's and young adult biographies concerning African American figures. Classroom and study questions relating to African-American biographies for children and young adults can be found at <http://www.pauahtun.org/audrey.html>

It should be noted that this is not a "recommended" list; instead, it aspires to be as complete a list as possible, on the assumption that teachers, students, and scholars need to know what kinds of books are available and need to consider what different books are trying to do. Ideally, therefore, teachers and students will compare and contrast different books on the same topic and make their own judgments. Be prepared to find that some of these books are outstanding, others good, still others mediocre, and some truly awful. One or two are almost surreal in their awfulness.

Included on this list are books for early readers, middle readers, and advanced readers; in a very few cases I have included books addressed to an adult audience -- usually because I found that libraries were categorizing these particular books as juveniles. For teachers looking for thumbnail biographical sketches rather than full-length book treatments, the bibliography includes the pages for book chapters and short encyclopedia-type entries as well as the titles of whole books devoted to each biographical subject.

The dates and descriptions included with each name are as accurate as I have been able to determine, but in some cases there is no fully reliable information available. As much as possible, I have tried to check the dates against adult biographies, since these are more likely than children's biographies to give the rationale for naming one birth date over another. (For example, Jim Beckwourth gave his birth date as 1798, and Louis Armstrong gave his birth date as 1900, but their recent biographers argue persuasively that these dates are incorrect.) The descriptions of each subject's noteworthy activities can only gesture at their importance and are not intended to be exhaustive.

Additional notes: The format used is the Chicago Style footnote or endnote (rather than bibliographical) format. Every effort has been made to catch typos, but I included misspellings preferred by the publisher -- for example, the "Childrens Press" did not use an apostrophe until its later years, and some biographies do not put the comma in "Martin Luther King, Jr." Brackets around part of a title indicate that this part of the title appears on the book's cover but not on the title page and/or the copyright notice.

Most of this bibliography is devoted to individual biographies. Group biographies and topics can be found at the end of the list. This bibliography is continually being updated; I welcome any additions you might wish to recommend.

Individuals

Hank Aaron (1934-) [athlete/baseball]

Hank Aaron, with Lonnie Wheeler, I Had a Hammer: The Hank Aaron Story (New York: HarperCollins, 1991). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 6-9.

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Home Run Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 6-9.

Bill Gutman, Hank Aaron (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1973).

James and Lynn Hahn, Henry! The Sports Career of Henry Aaron (Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1981).

James Haskins, Babe Ruth and Hank Aaron: The Home Run Kings (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1974).

Al Hirshberg, [The New Home Run King:] [The Up-to-Date Biography of] Henry Aaron: Quiet Superstar (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1969/1974).

Jacob Margolies, Hank Aaron: Home Run King (New York: Franklin Watts, 1992).

Richard Scott Rennert, [Baseball Great:] Henry Aaron (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1993).

James Tackach, Hank Aaron (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

B. E. Young, The Picture Story of Hank Aaron (New York: Julian Messner, 1974).

Robert S. Abbott (1870-1940) [newspaper publisher and editor, journalist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 127-128.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 42.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 9-10.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 78-82.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 1-5.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 123-133.

Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990) [clergyman, civil rights activist]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 10-11.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 4-9.

Catherine Reef, Ralph David Abernathy (Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1995).

Michael Adams (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

John Albert Torres, Top Ten Basketball Three-Point Shooters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999), 6-9.

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (1947-) [athlete/basketball]

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, with Mignon McCarthy, Kareem (New York: Random House, 1990). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

R. Thomas Cobourn, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar: Basketball Great (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1995).

James Haskins, From Lew Alcindor to Kareem Abdul Jabbar (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1972).

Ron Knapp, Top 10 Basketball Scorers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 6-9.

S. A. Kramer, Basketball's Greatest Players[: A Step 4 Book] (New York: Random House, 1997), 20-27.

Jacob Margolies, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar: Basketball Great (New York: Franklin Watts, 1992).

William R. Sanford and Carl R. Green, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (New York: Crestwood House, 1993).

Alida Thatcher, In the Center: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, photographs by Bruce Curtis and Ron Koch (Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Editions, 1976).

Alvin Ailey, Jr. (1931-1989) [dancer, choreographer, actor]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 4-9.

Julinda Lewis-Ferguson, Alvin Ailey, Jr.: A Life in Dance (New York: Walker & Co., 1994).

Andrea Davis Pinkney, Alvin Ailey, illus. Brian Pinkney (New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1993).

Kathilyn Solomon Probosz, Alvin Ailey, Jr. (New York: Bantam Skylark, 1991).

Robert Fleming, Alvin Ailey (Los Angeles, CA: Melrose Square Pub./Holloway House, 1998).

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 163-75.

Ira Aldridge (1807-1867) [Shakespearean actor]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 1.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 18-21.

Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, Black Magic: A Pictorial History of the Negro in American Entertainment (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967), 40-45.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 23-26.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 6-11.

Muhammad Ali (1942-) [athlete/boxing]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 107.

Thomas Conklin, Muhammad Ali: The Fight for Respect (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Barry Denenberg, The Story of Muhammad Ali, Heavyweight Champion of the World (New York: A Yearling Book/Dell, 1990).

Arthur Diamond, [The Importance of] Muhammad Ali (San Diego: Lucent Books, 1995).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 11-12.

James and Lynn Hahn, Ali! The Sports Career of Muhammad Ali (Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1981).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 2.

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 1-3.

Robert Lipsyte, Free To Be Muhammad Ali (New York: An Ursula Nordstrom Book/Harper & Row, 1977/1978).

Norman Macht, Muhammad Ali[: The People's Champion] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1994).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 90.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 4-9.

David Remnick, King of the World: Muhammad Ali and the Rise of an American Hero (New York: Random House, 1998). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Jack Rummel, Muhammad Ali[: Heavyweight Champion] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

William R. Sanford and Carl R. Green, Muhammad Ali (New York: Crestwood House, 1993).

Linda Thomas, Muhammad Ali, illus. Harold Henriksen (Mankato, MN: Creative Educational Society, 1975).

Debbie Allen (1950-) [dancer, singer, actor, television producer]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 10-15.

Richard Allen (1760-1831) [first AME bishop, abolitionist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 28-29.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 13.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 12-13.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 34-36.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 10-15.

Steve Klots, Richard Allen: Religious Leader and Social Activist (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Daniel C. Littlefield, Revolutionary Citizens: African Americans, 1776-1804 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 80-89.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 15-18.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 5-11.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 12-16.

Marian Anderson (1897-1993) [opera singer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 157-158.

Marian Anderson, My Lord, What a Morning: An Autobiography (New York: Avon Book/Hearst, 1956). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 70.

Jeri Ferris, What I Had Was Singing: The Story of Marian Anderson (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1994).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 13-14.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 16-21.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 86-88.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 45-62.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 3.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 130-135.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 127-131.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 48.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Marian Anderson: A Great Singer, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

May McNeer, Give Me Freedom, illus. Lynd Ward (New York: Abingdon Press, 1964), 93-110.

Charles Patterson, Marian Anderson (New York: Franklin Watts, 1988). [photographs]

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 14-20.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 70-71.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 64-70.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 14-23.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 25-31.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 100-107.

Anne Tedards, Marian Anderson[: Singer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Tobi Tobias, Marian Anderson, illus. Symeon Shimin (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1972).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 47.

Maya Angelou (1928-) [poet, memoirist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 96.

Carmen Bredeson, American Writers of the Twentieth Century (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 76-83.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 14-15.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 18-19.

Judith E. Harper, Maya Angelou (Chanhassen, MN: The Child's World, 1999).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 41.

Stuart A. Kallen, Maya Angelou: Woman of Words, Deeds, and Dreams (Minneapolis: Abdo & Daughters, 1993).

Sarah E. King, Maya Angelou: Greeting the Morning (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

L. Patricia Kite, Maya Angelou (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1999).

Elaine Slivinski Lisandrelli, Maya Angelou: More Than a Poet (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1996).

Jayne Pettit, Maya Angelou: Journey of the Heart (New York: Lodestar Books/Dutton, 1996).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 4-9.

Miles Shapiro, Maya Angelou: Author (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Nancy Shuker, Maya Angelou[: Genius! The Artist and the Process] (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1990).

Valerie Spain, Meet Maya Angelou (New York: Random House, 1994).

James Lafayette Armistead (1760-1832) [Revolutionary War spy]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 24-25.

Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) [jazz musician, singer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 139-140.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 67.

Sandford Brown, Louis Armstrong: Swinging, Singing Satchmo (New York: Franklin Watts, 1993).

James Lincoln Collier, Louis Armstrong: An American Success Story (New York: Macmillan, 1985).

Jean Gay Cornell, "Louis Armstrong: Ambassador Satchmo," in Three Jazz Greats, ed. Bennett Wayne, (Champaign, IL: Garrard Pub. Co., 1973), 60-107.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 15-16.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 4-9.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 76-80.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 117-123.

Genie Iverson, Louis Armstrong, illus. Kevin Brooks (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1976).

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 10-12.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Louis Armstrong: Jazz Musician, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1991).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Little Louis and the Jazz Band: The Story of Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong, illus. Anna Rich (New York: Lodestar Books, 1994).

Dharathula H. Millender, Louis Armstrong: Young Music Maker, illus. Al Fiorentino (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1972/1997).

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 19-27.

Wendie C. Old, Louis Armstrong: King of Jazz (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Roxane Orgill, If I Only Had a Horn: Young Louis Armstrong, illus. Leonard Jenkins (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 3-13.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 33-37.

Ruby Wilson Sanders, Jazz Ambassador Louis Armstrong, illus. John Solie, design by Rolf Zillmer (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1973).

Alan Schroeder, Satchmo's Blues, illus. Floyd Cooper (New York: A Doubleday Book for Young Readers, 1996).

Sam Tanenhaus, Louis Armstrong[: Musician] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Arthur Ashe (1943-1993) [athlete/tennis]

Robin Dexter, Young Arthur Ashe: Brave Champion, illus. R. W. Alley (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1996).

Stuart A. Kallen, Arthur Ashe: Champion of Dreams and Motion (Minneapolis: Abdo & Daughters, 1993).

Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Daddy and Me: A Photo Story of Arthur Ashe and His Daughter Camera (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 80-81.

Robert Quackenbush, Arthur Ashe and His Match with History (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1994).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 10-15.

Louie Robinson, Jr., Arthur Ashe: Tennis Champion (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1967).

Ted Weissberg, Arthur Ashe: Tennis Great (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 39-40.

David K. Wright, Arthur Ashe: Breaking the Color Barrier in Tennis (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1996).

Evelyn Ashford (1957-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 46-48.

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 24-27.

Crispus Attucks (1723-1770/1778?) [mariner, patriot martyr]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 14-15.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 8.

Tom Feelings, Tommy Traveller in the World of Black History (New York: Black Butterfly Children's Books, 1991), 19-32.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 18-20.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 3-13.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 21-29.

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 19-21.

Dharathula H. Millender, Crispus Attucks: Black Leader of Colonial Patriots, illus. Gray Morrow (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1965/1982). Orig.: Crispus Attucks: Boy of Valor (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965).

Catherine Reef, Black Fighting Men: A Proud History (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1994), 6-10.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 214-220.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 17-19.

Pearl Bailey (1918-1990) [singer, actor]

Keith Brandt, Pearl Bailey: With a Song in Her Heart, illus. Gershom Griffith (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1993).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 46-48.

Ella Baker (1903-1986) [civil rights activist]

Shyrlee Dallard, Ella Baker: A Leader behind the Scenes (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1990).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 16-17.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 12-13.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 13.

Josephine Baker (1906-1975) [entertainer]

Pam Nelson, Mari Florence, Naomi Wax, Cool Women[: The Thinking Girl's Guide to the Hippest Women in History], ed. Pam Nelson, designed by Amy Inouye (Chicago, IL: Girl Press, 1998), 4-5.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 4-9.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 39-43.

Alan Schroeder, Ragtime Tumpie, illus. Bernie Fuchs (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1989).

James Baldwin (1924-1987) [author]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 178-180.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 92.

Carmen Bredeson, American Writers of the Twentieth Century (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 68-75.

Edwina Conner, Twenty Names in Modern Literature, illus. Chris Rothero (New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1988), 34-35.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 17-18.

Ted Gottfried, James Baldwin: Voice from Harlem (New York: Franklin Watts, 1997).

Laurie Lanzen Harris and Cherie D. Abbey, eds., Biography Today Author Series, Vol. 2: Profiles of People of Interest to Young Readers (Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, Inc., 1996), 9-20.

Randall Kenan, James Baldwin (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 79-88.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 10-15.

Linda Rosset, James Baldwin[: Author] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Tyra Banks (1973-) [fashion model]

Pam Levin, Tyra Banks (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub., 2000).

Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806) [astronomer, mathematician, surveyor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 16-17.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 9.

Kevin Conley, Benjamin Banneker[: Scientist and Mathematician] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Lavinia Dobler and Edgar A. Toppin, Pioneers and Patriots: The Lives of Six Negroes of the Revolutionary Era, illus. Colleen Browning (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1965), 51-76.

Jeri Ferris, What Are You Figuring Now? A Story about Benjamin Banneker, illus. Amy Johnson (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1988).

Shirley Graham, Your Most Humble Servant (New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1949).

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 1-19.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 22-24.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 7-18.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 44-67.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 4.

Garnet Nelson Jackson, Benjamin Banneker: Scientist, illus. Rodney Pate (Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press, 1993).

Daniel C. Littlefield, Revolutionary Citizens: African Americans, 1776-1804 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 106-111, 113.

Laura Baskes Litwin, Benjamin Banneker: Astronomer and Mathematician (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 14-30.

Lillie Patterson, Benjamin Banneker: Genius of Early America, illus. David Scott Brown (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1978).

Andrea Davis Pinkney, Dear Benjamin Banneker, illus. Brian Pinkney (San Diego: Voyager Books, 1994).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 7.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 20-23.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 7-13.

Flossie E. Thompson-Peters, [The Story of] Benjamin Banneker, illus. Kathy Clo (Los Angeles, CA: Atlas Press, 1986). Also: Flossie E. Thompson-Peters, The Story of Benjamin Banneker, illus. Kathy Clo (Los Angeles, CA: Atlas Press, 1994). [poem]

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 43-50.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 31-32.

Also see:

Alice McGill, Molly Bannaky, illus. Chris K. Soentpiet (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999). [about Benjamin Banneker's English grandmother and African grandfather]

Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) (1934-) [poet, playwright, political activist]

Bob Bernotas, Amiri Baraka[: Poet and Playwright] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 18-19.

Charles Barkley (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 6-9.

Sean Dolan, Charles Barkley (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Ron Knapp, Charles Barkley: Star Forward (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1996).

Glen Macnow, Sports Great Charles Barkley (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 6-9.

Richmond Barthé (1901-1989) [sculptor]

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 92-100.

Daisy Bates (1914-1999) [fighter for desegregation in Little Rock]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 28.

Patricia Bath (1942-) [inventor]

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors III: Patricia Bath, Philip Emeagwali, Henry Sampson, Valerie Thomas, Peter Tolliver (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 8-13.

Andrew Jackson Beard (1849? 1859?-1941) [inventor]

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 56.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 39-42.

Romare Bearden (1911/1912?-1988) [artist]

Kevin Brown, Romare Bearden[: Artist] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1995).

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 91-107.

Jim Beckwourth ([1798] 1800-1866) [mountain man]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 46-47.

Wyatt Blassingame, Jim Beckwourth: Black Trapper and Indian Chief, illus. Herman Vestal (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1991). [A Discovery Biography]

T. D. Bonner ["as told to"], Mountain Man, Indian Chief: The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, ed. Betty Shepard (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968). [orig. 1856]

Olive Burt, Jim Beckwourth: Crow Chief (New York: Julian Messner, 1957).

Sean Dolan, James Beckwourth: Frontiersman (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Harold W. Felton, Jim Beckwourth: Negro Mountain Man (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1966).

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 31-39.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 65-75.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 27-32.

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Mountain Men, illus. Richard Leonard (Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1992), 47-65.

Ruth Pelz, Black Heroes of the Wild West, illus. Leandro Della Paina (Seattle: Open Hand Pub./Talman, 1990), 18-22.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 26-30.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 27-31.

Louis Sabin, Jim Beckwourth: Adventures of a Mountain Man, illus. Marion Krupp (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1993).

Lillian Schlissel, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

A. E. Schraff, Black Courage, illus. Len Ebert (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1969), 72-81.

Harry Belafonte (1927-) [folk singer, actor]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 95.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 10-15.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 45-49.

Bennie Benjamin (1907-) [Broadway songwriter]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 135-138.

Lerone Bennett, Jr. (1928-) [historian, editor]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 97.

Chuck Berry (1926-) [singer, musician, songwriter]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 46-48.

Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) [educator, civil rights activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 121-122.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 48.

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 91-111.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 19-20.

Carol Greene, Mary McLeod Bethune: Champion for Education (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993).

Eloise Greenfield, Mary McLeod Bethune, illus. Jerry Pinkney (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 4-9.

Malu Halasa, Mary McLeod Bethune[: Educator] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 5.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 26.

Patricia C. McKissack, Mary McLeod Bethune: A Great American Educator (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Mary McLeod Bethune: A Great Teacher, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Milton Meltzer, Mary McLeod Bethune: Voice of Black Hope, illus. Stephen Marchesi (New York: Viking Kestrel, 1987).

Catherine Owens Peare, Mary McLeod Bethune (New York: The Vanguard Press, 1951).

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 77-80.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 22-31.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 48-49.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 12-18.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 133-148.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 177-196.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 32-38.

Emma Gelders Sterne, Mary McLeod Bethune, illus. Raymond Lufkin (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957).

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 77-87.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 138-148.

Beth P. Wilson, Giants for Justice: Bethune, Randolph, and King (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978).

Rinna Evelyn Wolfe, Mary McLeod Bethune (New York: Franklin Watts, 1992).

Cindy Blackman (1959-) [musician, composer]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 46-48.

James Hubert "Eubie" Blake (1883-1983) [composer, songwriter]

James A. Bland (1854-1911) [minstrel composer]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 29-34.

Guion Bluford (1942-) [astronaut, first African American in space]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 212-213.

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 62-71.

James Haskins and Kathleen Benson, Space Challenge: The Story of Guion Bluford (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1984).

Dr. Stanley P. Jones and L. Octavia Tripp, African-American Astronauts: Guion S. Bluford Jr., Charles F. Bolden Jr., Frederick D. Gregory, Bernard A. Harris Jr., Mae C. Jemison (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 12-19.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 86-87.

Ruthie Bolton-Holifield (1967-) [athlete/basketball]

Molly Jackel and Joe Layden, WNBA Superstars (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 14-21.

Julian Bond (1940-) [politician]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 46-49.

Bobby Bonilla (1963-) [athlete/baseball]

Ron Knapp, Sports Great Bobby Bonilla (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1993).

Ken Rappoport, Bobby Bonilla (New York: Walker & Co., 1993).

Arna Bontemps (1902-1973) [writer, children's book writer]

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 61-68.

William Stanley Braithwaite (1878-1962) [poet]

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 53-55.

Ruby Bridges (1954-) [pioneer in school integration]

Ruby Bridges, Through My Eyes, ed. Margo Lundell (New York: Scholastic, 1999).

Robert Coles, The Story of Ruby Bridges, illus. George Ford (New York: Scholastic, 1995).

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-) [poet]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 83.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 39.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 34-36.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 65.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 87-91.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 48-49.

H. Rap Brown (1943-) [revolutionary]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 217-238.

James Brown (1933/1934-) [rock and roll musician, singer]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 22-23.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 142-147.

Jim Brown (1936-) [athlete/football]

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 6-9.

William Wells Brown (1814-1884) [former slave, abolitionist, playwright, novelist, historian]

[William Wells Brown, adapted by] Lucille Schulberg Warner, From Slave to Abolitionist: The Life of William Wells Brown [cover illus. and frontispiece by Tom Feelings] (New York: Dial Books, 1976).

Blanche K. Bruce (1841-1898) [politician]

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 49-52.

Philip Sterling and Rayford Logan, Four Took Freedom: The Lives of Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, and Blanche K. Bruce, illus. Charles White (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1967), 97-111.

Kobe Bryant (1978-) [athlete/basketball]

Nathan Hall, Kobe Bryant (New York: Archway Paperbacks, 1999).

Joe Layden, Kobe: The Story of the NBA's Rising Young Star (New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1998).

Robert [E.] Schnakenberg, Kobe Bryant (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1999).

Vicky Bullett (1967-) [athlete/basketball]

Molly Jackel and Joe Layden, WNBA Superstars (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 22-29.

Ralph Bunche (1904-1971) [diplomat, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 169-170.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 72.

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 4-9.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 23-24.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 82-84.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 63-78.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 120-127.

J. Alvin Kugelmass, Ralph J. Bunche: Fighter for Peace (New York: Julian Messner, 1952).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Ralph J. Bunche: Peacemaker, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 64.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 213-225.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 51-59.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 47-48.

Yvonne Braithwaite Burke (1932-) [politician]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 10-15.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 82.

Barbara Williams, Breakthrough: Women in Politics (New York: Walker & Co., 1979), 153-177.

Anthony Burns (1834-1862) [escaped slave whose trial created furor]

Virginia Hamilton, Anthony Burns: The Defeat and Triumph of a Fugitive Slave (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988).

George Washington Bush (1791-1863? 1867?) [frontiersman]

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 42-45.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 31-34.

A. E. Schraff, Black Courage, illus. Len Ebert (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1969), 154-158.

Octavia Butler (1947-) [science-fiction writer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 46-48.

Earl Campbell (1955-) [athlete/football]

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 10-13.

Stokely Carmichael (1941-?) [revolutionary]

Robert Cwiklik, Stokely Carmichael and Black Power (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 24-25.

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 185-201.

Jacqueline Johnson, Stokely Carmichael: The Story of Black Power (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1990).

Diahann Carroll (1935-) [actress]

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 38-42.

George E. Carruthers (1939-) [scientist]

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 83-84.

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors II: Bill Becoat, George Carruthers, Meredith Gourdine, Jesse Hoagland, Wanda Sigur (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 16-21.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 137-142.

George Washington Carver (1860?/1861?/ca.1864-1943) [scientist]

Gene Adair, George Washington Carver[: Botanist] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of George Washington Carver, illus. Dan Brown (New York: Holiday House, 1999).

Aliki [Brandenberg], A Weed Is a Flower: The Life of George Washington Carver, illus. Aliki (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1965/1988).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 102-103.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 36.

Janet and Geoff Benge, George Washington Carver, What Do You See?, illus. Kennon James (Houston, TX: Advance Pub., 1997).

Arna Bontemps, The Story of George Washington Carver, illus. Harper Johnson (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1954).

Suzanne M. Coil, George Washington Carver (New York: Franklin Watts, 1990).

Sam and Beryl Epstein, George Washington Carver: Agricultural Scientist, illus. Wayne Alfano (New York: A Young Yearling Book/Dell, 1960/1991).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 25-26.

Shirley Graham and George D. Lipscomb, Dr. George Washington Carver: Scientist, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: The Junior Literary Guild and Julian Messner, 1944).

Carol Greene, George Washington Carver: Scientist and Teacher (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1992).

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 104-121.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 10-15.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 63-71.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 142-160.

Rackham Holt, George Washington Carver: An American Biography (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1943).

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 68-76.

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 55-57.

David Manber, Wizard of Tuskegee: The Life of George Washington Carver (New York: Crowell-Collier Press, 1967).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 61-69.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, George Washington Carver: The Peanut Scientist, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Florence Crannell Means, Carvers' George: A Biography of George Washington Carver, illus. Harve Stein (Cambridge and Boston: The Riverside Press and Houghton Mifflin, 1952).

Barbara Mitchell, A Pocketful of Goobers: A Story about George Washington Carver, illus. Peter E. Hanson (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1986).

Eva Moore, The Story of George Washington Carver, illus. with prints by Alexander Anderson and with photographs (New York: Scholastic, 1971).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 151-163.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 250-265.

Teresa Rogers, George Washington Carver: Nature's Trailblazer, illus. Antonio Castro [cover illus. Larry Raymond] (Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992).

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 39-42.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 63-69.

Henry Thomas, George Washington Carver, illus. Andre Le Blanc (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1958).

Peter Towne, George Washington Carver, illus. Elzia Moon (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1975).

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 14-27.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823-1893) [newspaper publisher, journalist, abolitionist]

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 16-17.

Wilt Chamberlain (1936-1999) [athlete/basketball]

James and Lynn Hahn, Wilt! The Sports Career of Wilton Chamberlain (Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1981).

Ron Knapp, Top 10 Basketball Scorers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 18-21.

S. A. Kramer, Basketball's Greatest Players[: A Step 4 Book] (New York: Random House, 1997), 12-19.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 76-77.

Kenneth Rudeen, Wilt Chamberlain, illus. Frank Mullins (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1970).

Ray Charles (1930-) [singer/songwriter]

Sharon Bell Mathis, Ray Charles, illus. George Ford (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1973).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 4-9.

Ruth Turk, Ray Charles: Soul Man (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1996).

Charles Waddell Chesnutt (1858-1932) [author]

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 12-20.

Alice Childress (1920-1994) [novelist, playwright, director, actress, children's book author]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 46-48.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 40.

Shirley Chisholm (1924-) [politician]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 93.

Susan Brownmiller, Shirley Chisholm: A Biography (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970).

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 16-21.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 26-27.

James Haskins, Fighting Shirley Chisholm (New York: Dial Press, 1975).

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 144-163.

Nancy Hicks, The Honorable Shirley Chisholm: Congresswoman from Brooklyn (New York: Lion Books, 1971).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 79.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 44-51.

Jill S. Pollack, Shirley Chisholm (New York: Franklin Watts, 1994).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 82.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 5-11.

Catherine Scheader, Shirley Chisholm: Teacher and Congresswoman (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1990).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 37-38.

Joseph Cinque (1811?/1817-1879) [slave rebel leader]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 43-45.

Veronica Chambers, Amistad Rising: A Story of Freedom, illus. Paul Lee (San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1998).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 6.

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996), 112-129.

Walter Dean Myers, Amistad: A Long Road to Freedom (New York: Dutton Children's Books, 1998).

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 43-45.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 98-109.

Karen Zeinert, The Amistad Slave Revolt and American Abolition (North Haven, CT: Linnet Books, 1997).

Kenneth B. Clark (1914-) [scholar, psychologist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 81.

Septima Poinsette Clark (1898-1987) [founder of Freedom Schools]

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 10-11.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 27.

Albert B. Cleage (1912-?) [religious and revolutionary leader]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 61-74.

Eldridge Cleaver (1935-) [revolutionary]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 141-159.

Alice Coachman (1923/1926?-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 49-51.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 63.

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 44-46.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 62.

Nat "King" Cole (ca. 1919-1965) [singer, musician]

Maria Cole, with Louie Robinson, Nat King Cole: An Intimate Biography (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1971). [for adults but suitable for young adults]

James Haskins, with Kathleen Benson, Nat King Cole: A Personal and Professional Biography, rev. ed. (Chelsea, MI: Scarborough House, 1990). [for adults but suitable for young adults]

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 109-112.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 72-73.

Skip Press, Natalie and Nat King Cole (Parsippany, NJ: Crestwood House, 1995).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 10-15.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 51-55.

Natalie Cole (1950-) [singer]

Skip Press, Natalie and Nat King Cole (Parsippany, NJ: Crestwood House, 1995).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 49-51.

Rebecca J. Cole (1846-1922) [pioneer physician]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 88.

Bessie Coleman (1892/1893 [1896?]-1926) [first black aviator licensed in the U.S.]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 57.

Lillian M. Fisher, Brave Bessie: Flying Free (Dallas, TX: Hendrick Long Pub. Co., 1995).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 16-21.

Philip S. Hart, Flying Free: America's First Black Aviators (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub., 1992), 14-21.

Philip S. Hart, Up in the Air: The Story of Bessie Coleman (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1996).

Jim Haskins, Black Eagles: African Americans in Aviation (New York: Scholastic, 1995), 17-49.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 90.

Dr. Stanley P. Jones, African-American Aviators: James Herman Banning, Bessie Coleman, General Daniel "Chappie" James Jr., Benjamin O. Davis Jr., William J. Powell (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 10-17.

Reeve Lindbergh, Nobody Owns the Sky: The Story of "Brave Bessie" Coleman, illus. Pamela Paparone (Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press, 1996).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 42-43.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 120-139.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 46.

Derrick Coleman (1967-) [athlete/basketball]

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 10-13.

Marva Collins (1936-) [educator]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 30.

John Coltrane (1926-1966? 67?) [jazz musician]

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 85-93.

Cynthia Cooper (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

Cynthia Cooper, She Got Game: My Personal Odyssey (New York: Warner Books, 1999).

Michelle Smith, She's Got Game: 10 Stars of the WNBA (New York: Scholastic, 1999), 10-17.

Floyd Cooper (1959-) [children's book illustrator]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists, Vol. Two: Conversations with Thomas B. Allen, Mary Jane Begin, Floyd Cooper, Julie Downing, Denise Fleming, Sheila Hamanaka, Kevin Henkes, William Joyce, Maira Kalman, Deborah Nourse Lattimore, Brian Pinkney, Vera B. Williams, and David Wisniewski (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995), 22-27.

Fanny Coppin (1835? 1836-1913) [educator]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 7.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 23.

Don Cornelius (1936-) [creator of "Soul Train"]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 46-48.

Bill Cosby (1937-) [comedian, actor]

Barbara Johnston Adams, The Picture Life of Bill Cosby (New York: Franklin Watts, 1986).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 101.

Joel H. Cohen, Cool Cos: The Story of Bill Cosby (New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1969).

Bruce W. Conord, Bill Cosby[: Family Man] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1993).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 27-28.

Jim Haskins, Bill Cosby: America's Most Famous Father (New York: Walker & Co., 1988).

Solomon J. Herbert and George H. Hill, Bill Cosby[: Entertainer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Larry Kettelkamp, Bill Cosby: Family Funny Man (New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1987).

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 64-66.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 16-21.

Robert Rosenberg, Bill Cosby: The Changing Black Image (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

William Sanford and Carl Green, Bill Cosby (Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1986).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 38-39.

Harold and Geraldine Woods, Bill Cosby: Making America Laugh and Learn (Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1983).

Ellen and William Craft (EC: 1826-1897) [runaway slaves]

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 1-29.

Elizabeth F. Chittenden, Profiles in Black and White: Stories of Men and Women Who Fought against Slavery (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973), 68-87.

Florence B. Freedman, Two Tickets to Freedom: The True Story of Ellen and William Craft, Fugitive Slaves, illus. Ezra Jack Keats (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 8.

Michael Croslin (1933-) [inventor, military]

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 123-126.

David Nelson Crosthwait, Jr. (1898-1976) [inventor]

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 89-92.

Paul Cuffe (1759-1817) [merchant, abolitionist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 30-31.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 12.

Arthur Diamond, Paul Cuffe[: Merchant and Abolitionist] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Lavinia Dobler and Edgar A. Toppin, Pioneers and Patriots: The Lives of Six Negroes of the Revolutionary Era, illus. Colleen Browning (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1965), 77-98.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 12-16.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 39-49.

William Loren Katz and Paula A. Franklin, Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 1-9.

Daniel C. Littlefield, Revolutionary Citizens: African Americans, 1776-1804 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 98, 110-15.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 20-21, 23.

Countée Cullen (1903-1946) [poet]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 28-29.

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 55-65.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 75-79.

Pat Cummings (1950-) [illustrator, artist]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists: Conversations with Victoria Chess, Pat Cummings, Leo and Diane Dillon, Richard Egielski, Lois Ehlert, Lisa Campbell Ernst, Tom Feelings, Steven Kellogg, Jerry Pinkney, Amy Schwartz, Lane Smith, Chris Van Allsburg, and David Wiesner (New York: Bradbury Press, 1992), 16-21.

Dorothy Dandridge (1922-1965) [actor]

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 4-9.

Angela Davis (1944-) [scholar, political activist]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 29-30.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 21.

Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. (1912-) [military war hero, aviator]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 187-198.

Dr. Stanley P. Jones, African-American Aviators: James Herman Banning, Bessie Coleman, General Daniel "Chappie" James Jr., Benjamin O. Davis Jr., William J. Powell (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 32-37.

Catherine Reef, Benjamin Davis, Jr. (Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 221-223.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 325-330.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 26-33.

Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. (1877-1970) [first black general in the U.S. army]

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 54-55.

Catherine Reef, Black Fighting Men: A Proud History (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1994), 39-45.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 220-221.

Miles Davis (1926-1991) [jazz musician]

George R. Crisp, Miles Davis (New York: Franklin Watts/Grolier, 1997).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 10-15.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 128-133.

Daryl N. Long, Miles Davis for Beginners (New York: Writers and Readers, 1992).

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 76-84.

Ossie Davis (1917-) [actor]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 84.

Sammy Davis, Jr. (1925-1990) [entertainer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 22-27.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 57-62.

Darryl Dawkins (1957-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 10-13.

Tom Day (1801-ca. 1861) [artisan]

Mary E. Lyons, Master of Mahogany: Tom Day, Free Black Cabinetmaker (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994).

Ruby Dee (1923?/1924-) [actor]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 84.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 16-17.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 54.

Martin Robinson Delaney (1812-1885) [abolitionist, editor, black nationalist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 19.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 31-32.

Gail Devers (1966?/1967-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 4-9.

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 54-56.

Eric Dickerson (1960-) [athlete/football]

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 14-17.

Leo Dillon (1933-) [children's book illustrator, artist]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists: Conversations with Victoria Chess, Pat Cummings, Leo and Diane Dillon, Richard Egielski, Lois Ehlert, Lisa Campbell Ernst, Tom Feelings, Steven Kellogg, Jerry Pinkney, Amy Schwartz, Lane Smith, Chris Van Allsburg, and David Wiesner (New York: Bradbury Press, 1992), 22-29.

Deborah Kovacs and James Preller, Meet the Authors and Illustrators: 60 Creators of Favorite Children's Books Talk about Their Work, Vol. 1 (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1991), 30-31.

David Dinkins (1927-) [politician]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 49-51.

Father Divine (1879-1965) [religious leader]

Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine: Religious Leader (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Dean Dixon (1915-) [symphony conductor]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 149-154.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 38-49.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 35-49.

Estevanico Dorantez (ca. 1500-1539) [explorer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 8-9.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 14-16.

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 7-14.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 3-9.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 7-10.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 41.

Tony Dorsett (1954-) [athlete/football]

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 18-21.

Thomas A. Dorsey (1899-1993) [composer, father of gospel music]

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 50.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 52-54.

Frederick Douglass (ca.1817/1818?-1895) [abolitionist]

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Frederick Douglass, illus. Samuel Byrd (New York: Holiday House, 1993).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 65-68.

Anobel Armour, Freedom from Bondage, illus. James Ponter (Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1970).

Melissa Banta, Frederick Douglass: Voice of Liberty (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1993).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 21.

Evelyn Bennett, Frederick Douglass and the War against Slavery (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

Arna Bontemps, Frederick Douglass: Slave--Fighter--Freeman, illus. Harper Johnson (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959).

Margaret Davidson, Frederick Douglass Fights for Freedom (New York: Scholastic, 1968). Also: Margaret Davidson, Frederick Douglass Fights for Freedom (New York: Four Winds Press/Scholastic, 1968).

Ossie Davis, Escape to Freedom: A Play about Young Frederick Douglass (New York: Puffin, 1976).

Frederick Douglass, Escape from Slavery: The Boyhood of Frederick Douglass in His Own Words, ed. and illus. Michael McCurdy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994).

Frederick Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, adapted by Barbara Ritchie (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1966).

Frederick Douglass, "Teaching Myself to Read and Write," in Young and Black in America, ed. Rae Pace Alexander (New York: Random House, 1970), 3-16.

Tom Feelings, Tommy Traveller in the World of Black History (New York: Black Butterfly Children's Books, 1991), 18.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 33-34.

Linda Walvoord Girard, Young Frederick Douglass: The Slave Who Learned to Read, illus. Colin Bootman (Morton Grove, IL: Albert Whitman & Co., 1994).

Shirley Graham, There Was Once a Slave . . . : The Heroic Story of Frederick Douglass (New York: Julian Messner, 1947).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 46-48.

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 83-87.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 8.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 24-31.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 77-100.

Mona Kerby, Frederick Douglass (New York: Franklin Watts, 1994).

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 82-84.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Frederick Douglass: The Black Lion (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Frederick Douglass: Leader against Slavery, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 26-28.

Milton Meltzer, ed., Frederick Douglass in His Words, illus. Stephen Alcorn (San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1995).

Douglas T. Miller, Frederick Douglass and the Fight for Freedom (New York: Facts on File, 1988).

William Miller, Frederick Douglass: The Last Day of Slavery, illus. Cedric Lucas (New York: Lee & Low Books, 1995).

Lillie Patterson, Frederick Douglass: Freedom Fighter, illus. Gray Morrow, with Daniel Mark Duffy (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1991).

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 43-47.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 19-25.

Barbara Ritchie (adaptor), The Mind and Heart of Frederick Douglas: Excerpts from Speeches of the Great Negro Orator (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968).

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 46-52.

Sharman Apt Russell, Frederick Douglass[: Abolitionist Editor] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Laurence Santrey, Young Frederick Douglass: Fight for Freedom, illus. Bert Dodson (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1983).

Philip Sterling and Rayford Logan, Four Took Freedom: The Lives of Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, and Blanche K. Bruce, illus. Charles White (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1967), 33-65.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 112-122.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 87-97.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 104-114.

Eric Weiner, The Story of Frederick Douglass: Voice of Freedom, illus. Steven Parton (New York: Yearling/Dell, 1992).

Rita Dove [poet]

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 106-107.

Charles R. Drew (1904-1950) [surgeon, scientist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 161-163.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 73.

Roland Bertol, Charles Drew, illus. Jo Polseno (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1970).

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 219-244.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 78-80.

Richard Hardwick, Charles Richard Drew: Pioneer in Blood Research (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967).

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 79-90.

Robert C. Hayden, Eleven African American Doctors [illus. Richard Loehle] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992), 170-185.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 10-25.

Robert Lichello, Pioneer in Blood Plasma: Dr. Charles Richard Drew (New York: Julian Messner, 1968).

Robyn Mahone-Lonesome, Charles Drew[: Physician] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 46-51.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 73-76.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 52.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 164-170.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 266-274.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 53-54.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 13-21.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 102-106.

Katherine S. Talmadge, The Life of Charles Drew, illus. Antonio Castro (Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 92-103.

Rinna Evelyn Wolfe, Charles Richard Drew, M.D. (New York: Franklin Watts, 1991).

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 54-66.

Clyde Drexler (1962-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 14-17.

J. Kelly, Clyde Drexler (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963) [scholar, editor, civil rights activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 123-126.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 39.

Seamus Cavan, W. E. B. Du Bois and Racial Relations (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 34-35.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 22-27.

Virginia Hamilton, W. E. B. Du Bois: A Biography (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 9.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, W. E. B. Du Bois (New York: Franklin Watts, 1990).

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 85-90.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 26-32.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 55-58.

Mark Stafford, W. E. B. Du Bois[: Scholar and Activist] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Dorothy Sterling and Benjamin Quarles, Lift Every Voice: The Lives of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary Church Terrell, and James Weldon Johnson, illus. Ernest Crichlow (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday & Co., 1965), 27-54.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 134-143.

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) [poet]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 44.

Virginia Cunningham, Paul Laurence Dunbar and His Song (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1947).

Tony Gentry, Paul Laurence Dunbar[: Poet] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 84-91.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 38-52.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 59-62.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 132-140.

Katherine Dunham (1909-) [dancer, choreographer]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 77.

Jeannine Dominy, Katherine Dunham: Dancer and Choreographer (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Carol Greene, Katherine Dunham: Black Dancer (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1992).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 49-51.

Terry Harnan, African Rhythm American Dance: A Biography of Katherine Dunham (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974).

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 93-105.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 11.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 50.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 87-96.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 68-78.

Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable (ca.1745-1818) [founder of Chicago]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 12-13.

Lavinia Dobler and Edgar A. Toppin, Pioneers and Patriots: The Lives of Six Negroes of the Revolutionary Era, illus. Colleen Browning (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1965), 18-29.

Shirley Graham, Jean Baptiste Pointe De Sable: Founder of Chicago (New York: Julian Messner, 1953).

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 26-28.

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 15-23.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 10.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 31-37.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 10-13.

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Mountain Men, illus. Richard Leonard (Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1992), 29-46.

Ruth Pelz, Black Heroes of the Wild West, illus. Leandro Della Paina (Seattle: Open Hand Pub./Talman, 1990), 6-11.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 11-14.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 63-67.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 51-59.

Marian Wright Edelman (1939-) [civil rights activist, lawyer]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 103.

Joann J. Burch, Marian Wright Edelman: Children's Champion (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 22-23.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 20.

Steve Otfinoski, Marian Wright Edelman: Defender of Children's Rights (New York: Blackbirch Press, 1991).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 10-15.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 12-18.

Beatrice Siegel, Marian Wright Edelman: The Making of a Crusader (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

Duke Ellington (1899-1974) [jazz musician, bandleader, composer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 146-147.

Pamela Barclay, Duke Ellington: Ambassador of Music, illus. Harold Henriksen (Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1974).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 65.

Cobblestone: The History Magazine for Young People [special issue on] Duke Ellington: A Musical Genius 14, no. 5 (May 1993).

James Lincoln Collier, Duke Ellington (New York: Macmillan, 1991).

Ron Frankl, Duke Ellington[: Bandleader and Composer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 35-36.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 16-21.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 82-91.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 12.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 101-108.

Elizabeth Rider Montgomery, Duke Ellington: King of Jazz, illus. Paul Frame (New York: Yearling/Dell, 1972).

Elizabeth Rider Montgomery, "Duke Ellington: King of Jazz," in Three Jazz Greats, ed. Bennett Wayne, (Champaign, IL: Garrard Pub. Co., 1973), 114-161.

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 28-37.

Wendie C. Old, Duke Ellington: Giant of Jazz (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1996).

Andrea Davis Pinkney, Duke Ellington: The Piano Prince and His Orchestra, illus. Brian Pinkney (New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1998).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 3-11.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 24-34.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 63-68.

Eve Stwertka, Duke Ellington: A Life of Music (New York: Franklin Watts, 1994).

Mike Venezia, [Getting to Know the World's Greatest Composers:] Duke Ellington, illus. Mike Venezia (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995).

Robert Brown Elliott (1842-1884) [politician]

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 39-42.

Dale Ellis (1960-) [athlete/basketball]

John Albert Torres, Top Ten Basketball Three-Point Shooters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999), 18-21.

Ralph Ellison (1914-1994) [author]

Jack Bishop, Ralph Ellison[: Author] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 36-37.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 63.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 16-21.

Philip Emeagwali (1954-) [inventor]

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors III: Patricia Bath, Philip Emeagwali, Henry Sampson, Valerie Thomas, Peter Tolliver (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 14-21.

Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797/1801?) [writer, abolitionist]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 37.

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 23-26.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 9-11.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 42.

Julius Erving (1950-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 18-21.

James Haskins, Doctor J.: A Biography of Julius Erving (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1975).

Ron Knapp, Top 10 Basketball Scorers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 22-25.

Josh Wilker, Julius Erving[: Basketball Great] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1995).

Esteban (early 16th century) ["discoverer" of Arizona]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 11-20.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 33-42.

Estevanico (see Estevanico Dorantez)

Minnie Evans (1892-1987) [artist]

Mary E. Lyons, Painting Dreams: Minnie Evans, Visionary Artist (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996).

Medgar Evers (1925-1963) [civil rights activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 188-189.

Patrick Ewing (1962-) [athlete/basketball]

Richard Rambeck, Patrick Ewing ([Mankato, MN] Chicago: The Child's World, 1994).

Paul Wiener, Patrick Ewing (New York: Chelsea House, 1996).

James Farmer (1920-1999) [leading civil rights activist]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 38-39.

Robert E. Jakoubek, James Farmer and the Freedom Rides (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Jeff Slansky, James Farmer: Civil Rights Leader (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Louis Farrakhan (1933-) [black nationalist leader, religious leader]

Therese De Angelis, Louis Farrakhan (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 39-40.

Jessie Redmon Fauset (1882-1961) [writer, editor]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 40-41.

Tom Feelings (1933-) [children's book illustrator, artist]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists: Conversations with Victoria Chess, Pat Cummings, Leo and Diane Dillon, Richard Egielski, Lois Ehlert, Lisa Campbell Ernst, Tom Feelings, Steven Kellogg, Jerry Pinkney, Amy Schwartz, Lane Smith, Chris Van Allsburg, and David Wiesner (New York: Bradbury Press, 1992), 48-53.

Mary Fields, "Stagecoach Mary" (1830s/1832?-1914) [frontierswoman]

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 48-62.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 80-83.

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Cowboys, illus. Richard Leonard (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991), 25-38.

Robert H. Miller, The Story of "Stagecoach" Mary Fields, illus. Cheryl Hanna (Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1995).

Ruth Pelz, Black Heroes of the Wild West, illus. Leandro Della Paina (Seattle: Open Hand Pub./Talman, 1990), 42-46.

Lillian Schlissel, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

Ella Fitzgerald (1918-) [singer]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 53.

Bud Kliment, Ella Fitzgerald[: Singer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 16-21.

Carolyn Wyman, Ella Fitzgerald: Jazz Singer Supreme (New York: Franklin Watts, 1993).

Henry O. Flipper (1856-1940) [military]

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 155-160.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 24.

George Foreman (1949-) [athlete/boxing]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 10-15.

James Forman (1928-) [revolutionary]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 123-139.

Charlotte Forten (see Charlotte Forten Grimké)

James Forten, Sr. (1766-1842) [abolitionist, entrepreneur]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 22-23.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 14.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 17-20.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 21-23.

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 53-63.

Amos Fortune (1710-1801) [freed slave, respected citizen]

Elizabeth Yates, Amos Fortune: Free Man, illus. Nora S. Unwin (New York: Aladdin Books, 1950). Also: Elizabeth Yates, Amos Fortune: Free Man, illus. Nora S. Unwin (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1950). Also: Elizabeth Yates, Amos Fortune: Free Man, illus. Nora S. Unwin (New York: Puffin/Penguin, 1950).

T. Thomas Fortune (1856-1928) [editor, journalist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 30.

George Foster (1948-) [athlete/baseball]

Malka Drucker, with George Foster, The George Foster Story (New York: Holiday House, 1979).

Aretha Franklin (1942-) [singer]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 43.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 154-159.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 13.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 60.

Hettie Jones, Big Star Fallin' Mama: Five Women in Black Music, rev. ed (New York: Viking, 1995), 106-123.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 91.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 22-27.

Bertram O. Fraser-Reid (1934-) [scientist]

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 80-93.

E. Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) [sociologist, educator]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 60.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 43-44.

Elizabeth Freeman (1742-1829) [abolitionist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 26-27.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 10.

Harold W. Felton, Mumbet: The Story of Elizabeth Freeman, illus. Donn Albright (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1970).

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 37-38.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 41-42.

Morgan Freeman (1937-) [actor]

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 10-15.

Ernest Gaines (1933-) [author]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 49-51.

Deborah Gannett (1700s) [soldier in Revolutionary war]

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 68-69.

Henry Highland Garnet (1815-1882) [abolitionist, diplomat, minister]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 20.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 70-71.

Kevin Garnett [athlete/basketball]

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 34-41.

Zina Garrison (1963-) [athlete/tennis]

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 72-75.

A. P. Porter, Zina Garrison: Ace (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1991).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 46-48.

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) [black nationalist leader]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 137-138.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 53.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 45.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 14.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 33-39.

A. G. Gaston (1892-1996) [banker, entrepreneur]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 88-92.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 4-9.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 90-103.

Althea Gibson (1927-) [athlete/tennis]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 15.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 64.

Pam Nelson, Mari Florence, Naomi Wax, Cool Women[: The Thinking Girl's Guide to the Hippest Women in History], ed. Pam Nelson, designed by Amy Inouye (Chicago, IL: Girl Press, 1998), 38-39.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 54-56.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 49-51.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 49.

Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993) [jazz musician, composer]

Tony Gentry, Dizzy Gillespie: Musician (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Leslie Gourse, Dizzy Gillespie and the Birth of Bebop (New York: Atheneum Books for Children, 1994).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 49-51.

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 57-66.

Jennifer Gillom (1964-) [athlete/basketball]

Michelle Smith, She's Got Game: 10 Stars of the WNBA (New York: Scholastic, 1999), 26-33.

Nikki Giovanni (1943-) [poet]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 52-54.

Whoopi Goldberg (1950-) [actor, comedian]

Mary Agnes Adams, Whoopi Goldberg: From Street to Stardom (New York: Dillon Press, 1993).

Ann Graham Gaines, Whoopi Goldberg (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub./Main Line Book Co., 1999).

Sandor Katz, Whoopi Goldberg: Performer with a Heart (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1997).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 28-33.

W. Wilson Goode (1938-) [politician]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 52-54.

Dwight Gooden (1964-) [athlete/baseball]

Bert Rosenthal, Dwight Gooden: King of the Ks (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985).

Berry Gordy, Jr. (1929-) [founder of Motown]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 124-129.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 148-154.

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 124-126.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 10-15.

Meredith Gourdine (1929-) [scientist]

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors II: Bill Becoat, George Carruthers, Meredith Gourdine, Jesse Hoagland, Wanda Sigur (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 22-29.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 85-87.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 119-122.

Bill Gray (1941-) [politician]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 105.

Eloise Greenfield (1929-) [children's book author and poet]

Eloise Greenfield and Lessie Jones Little, with Pattie Ridley Jones, Childtimes: A Three-Generation Memoir, illus. Jerry Pinkney (New York: HarperTrophy, 1979/1993).

Dick Gregory (1932-) [comedian]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 49-51.

Ken Griffey, Jr. (1969-) [athlete/baseball]

Matt Christopher, At the Plate with . . . Ken Griffey, Jr. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1997).

Bill Gutman, Ken Griffey, Jr.: A Biography (New York: An Archway Paperback/Pocket Books, 1998).

Bill Gutman, Ken Griffey, Sr., and Ken Griffey, Jr.: Father and Son Teammates (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1993).

Glen Macnow, Ken Griffey, Jr.: Star Outfielder (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1997).

Howard Reiser, Ken Griffey, Jr.: The Kid (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1994).

Mark Stewart, Ken Griffey, Jr.: All-American Slugger (Danbury, CT: Children's Press/Grolier, 1998).

Ken Griffey, Sr. (1950-) [athlete/baseball]

Bill Gutman, Ken Griffey, Sr., and Ken Griffey, Jr.: Father and Son Teammates (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1993).

Darrell Griffith (1958-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 22-25.

Archibald Henry Grimké (1849-1930) [lawyer, author]

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 72-74.

Charlotte Forten Grimké (1837-1914) [educator, writer, abolitionist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 75-77.

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 30-47.

Elizabeth F. Chittenden, Profiles in Black and White: Stories of Men and Women Who Fought against Slavery (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973), 107-124.

Esther M. Douty, Charlotte Forten: Free Black Teacher (Champaign, IL: Garrard Pub. Co., 1971).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 24.

Tony Gwynn (1960-) [athlete/baseball]

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 14-17.

Clara McBride Hale, "Mother Hale" (1905-1992) [founder of Hale House, caretaker of drug-addicted babies and babies with AIDS]

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 112-126.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 14.

Alex Haley (1921-1992) [author]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 89.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 47-48.

Doreen Gonzales, Alex Haley: Author of Roots (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1994).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 104-114.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 22-27.

David Shirley, Alex Haley: Author (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 140-158.

Lloyd A. Hall (1894-1971) [scientist]

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 146-160.

Fannie Lou Hamer (1917-1977) [civil rights activist]

Zita Allen, Black Women Leaders of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Franklin Watts, 1996), 102-110.

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 194-196.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 85.

Penny Colman, Fannie Lou Hamer and the Fight for the Vote (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 48-49.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 49-51.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 14-15.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 108-123.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 17.

June Jordan, Fannie Lou Hamer, illus. Albert Williams (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1972).

David Rubel, Fannie Lou Hamer: From Sharecropping to Politics (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press/Simon & Schuster, 1990).

Virginia Hamilton (1936-) [children's book writer]

Deborah Kovacs and James Preller, Meet the Authors and Illustrators: 60 Creators of Favorite Children's Books Talk about Their Work, Vol. 1 (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1991), 102-103.

Penelope Yunghans, Prize Winners: Ten Writers for Young Readers (Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 1995), 124-137.

Hammer (1962-) [rap singer, dancer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 28-33.

Jupiter Hammon (1720?-1806?) [slave preacher, poet]

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 15-17.

W. C. Handy [William Christopher] (1873/1875?-1957?/1958) [musician, composer, father of the blues]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 131-132.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 46.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 62-64.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 42-48.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 94-104.

Elizabeth Rider Montgomery, "William C. Handy: Father of the Blues," in Three Jazz Greats, ed. Bennett Wayne, (Champaign, IL: Garrard Pub. Co., 1973), 8-53.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 37.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 12-22.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 75-79.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 45-46.

Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965) [playwright]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 176-177.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 99.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 16.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 42.

Patricia McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Young, Black, and Determined: A Biography of Lorraine Hansberry (New York: Holiday House, 1998).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 89-103.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 74.

Catherine Scheader, Lorraine Hansberry: Playwright and Voice of Justice (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Susan Sinnott, Lorraine Hansberry: Award-Winning Playwright and Civil Rights Activist (Berkeley: Conari Press, 1999).

Janet Tripp, The Importance of Lorraine Hansberry (San Diego: Lucent Books, 1998).

Anfernee Hardaway (1972-) [athlete/basketball]

Jeremy Daniels, Anfernee Hardaway (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Brad Townsend, Anfernee Hardaway: Basketball's Lucky Penny (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub., 1997).

Tim Hardaway [athlete/basketball]

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 26-33.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911) [abolitionist, novelist, poet, intellectual]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 49-50.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 34.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 22-27.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 80-82.

Patricia Roberts Harris (1924-1985) [ambassador, cabinet secretary]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 55-57.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 58-60.

Claude Harvard (1911-) [inventor]

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 107-112.

William Hastie (1904-1976) [educator, judge, politician]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 50-51.

Connie Hawkins (1942-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 26-29.

Elvin Hayes (1945-) [athlete/basketball]

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 18-21.

Roland Hayes (1887-) [concert singer]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 75-81.

Dorothy I. Height (1912-) [leader of women's groups, founder of annual Black Family Reunion]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 15.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 46-48.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 39-54.

Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970) [rock musician]

Curtis Knight, Jimi Hendrix: Star Child (Wilmington, DE: Abelard Productions, 1992).

Mitch Mitchell, with John Platt, Jimi Hendrix: Inside the Experience (New York: Harmony Books, 1990).

Tom Stockdale, Jimi Hendrix (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1998).

Matthew Henson (1865?/1866-1955) [arctic explorer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 118-120.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 37.

Sean Dolan, Matthew Henson[: Arctic Explorer] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1992).

Jeri Ferris, Arctic Explorer: The Story of Matthew Henson (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1989).

Michael Gilman, Matthew Henson: Explorer (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 28-33.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 54-56.

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 46-61.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 26-44.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 116-141.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 17.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 139-152.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 65-68.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 34-35.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 83-87.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 121-131.

Anita Hill [lawyer]

Bob Italia, Anita Hill: Speaking Out against Harassment (Minneapolis, MN: Abdo & Daughters, 1993).

Grant Hill (1972-) [athlete/basketball]

Daniel Bial, Grant Hill (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Matt Christopher, On the Court with . . . Grant Hill (Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1996).

Bill Gutman, Grant Hill: A Biography (New York: Archway Paperback/Pocket Books, 1997).

Grant Hill, Change the Game: One Athlete's Thoughts on Sports, Dreams and Growing Up (New York: Warner Books, 1996).

Ken Rappoport, Grant Hill (New York: Walker & Co., 1996).

John Rolfe, Grant Hill, illus. Steve McGarry (Toronto: Bantam, 1995).

Jeff Savage, Grant Hill: Humble Hotshot (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1997).

Stew Thornley, Grant Hill: Star Forward (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1999).

Chester Himes (1909-1984) [novelist, short story writer, mystery writer]

M. L. Wilson, Chester Himes[: Author] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Gregory Hines (1946-) [tap dancer, actor]

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 198-204.

Jim Hines (1946-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 52-54.

Billie Holiday (1915-1959) [jazz singer]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 82.

Leslie Gourse, Billie Holiday: The Tragedy and Triumph of Lady Day (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 22-27.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 91-96.

Hettie Jones, Big Star Fallin' Mama: Five Women in Black Music, rev. ed (New York: Viking, 1995), 78-105.

Bud Kliment, Billie Holiday[: Singer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

John Hope (1868-1936) [educator]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 40.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 53-54.

Lena Horne (1917-) [actor, singer]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 54-55.

James Haskins, Lena Horne (New York: Coward-McCann, 1983).

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 157-160.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 52.

Leslie Palmer, Lena Horne[: Entertainer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 52-54.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 69-73.

Charles H. Houston (1895-1950) [civil rights lawyer]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 62.

Whitney Houston (1963-) [singer, actor]

Ted Cox, Whitney Houston (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

Keith Elliot Greenberg, Whitney Houston (Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1988).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 55-57.

Jeff Savage, Whitney Houston (Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1998).

Juwan Howard (1973-) [athlete/basketball]

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 18-25.

Jeff Savage, Sports Great Juwan Howard (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1999).

Langston Hughes (1902-1967) [poet]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 141-143.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 71.

Floyd Cooper, Coming Home: From the Life of Langston Hughes, illus. Floyd Cooper (New York: Philomel Books, 1994).

Montrew Dunham, Langston Hughes: Young Black Poet, illus Robert Doremus (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1972/1995).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 57-58.

Christine M. Hill, Langston Hughes: Poet of the Harlem Renaissance (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1997).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 18.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Langston Hughes: Great American Poet, illus. Michael David Biegel (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Milton Meltzer, Langston Hughes: A Biography (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968).

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 151-153.

Elizabeth P. Meyers, Langston Hughes: Poet of His People, illus. Russell Hoover (Champaign, IL: Garrard Pub. Co., 1970).

Audrey Osofsky, Free to Dream: The Making of a Poet: Langston Hughes (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1996).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 32-43.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 174-181.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 114-124.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 69-74.

Jack Rummel, Langston Hughes[: Poet] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Alice Walker, Langston Hughes: American Poet, illus. Don Miller (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1974).

Clementine Hunter (1886-1988) [artist]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 22-27.

Mary E. Lyons, ed., Talking with Tebé: Clementine Hunter, Memory Artist (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998).

Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) [novelist, folklorist, cultural anthropologist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 68.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 58-59.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 19.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 37.

Mary E. Lyons, Sorrow's Kitchen: The Life and Folklore of Zora Neale Hurston (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 58-60.

William Miller, Zora Hurston and the Chinaberry Tree, illus. Cornelius Van Wright and Ying-Hwa Hu (New York: Lee & Low, 1994).

N. Y. Nathiri, ed., Zora! Zora Neale Hurston: A Woman and Her Community (Orlando, FL: The Orlando Sentinel/Sentinel Communications Co., 1991).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 44-54.

A. P. Porter, Jump at de Sun: The Story of Zora Neale Hurston (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 1992).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 28-33.

Paul Witcover, Zora Neale Hurston[: Author] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Janelle Yates, Zora Neale Hurston: A Storyteller's Life, illus. David Adams (Staten Island, NY: Ward Hill Press, 1991/1993).

Rex Ingram (1895-1969) [actor]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 20.

Bo Jackson (1962-) [athlete/baseball and football]

John Devaney, Bo Jackson: A Star for All Seasons (New York: Walker & Co., 1988).

Rick L. Johnson, Bo Jackson: Baseball/Football Superstar (New York: Dillon Press, 1991).

Ron Knapp, Sports Great Bo Jackson, rev. ed. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1990).

Ellen Emerson White, Bo Jackson: Playing the Games (New York: Scholastic, 1990).

Janet Jackson (1966-) [singer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 58-60.

Jesse Jackson (1941-) [civil rights activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 216-218.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 106.

Teresa Celsi, Jesse Jackson and Political Power (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Dorothy Chaplick, Up with Hope: A Biography of Jesse Jackson (Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1986).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 59-60.

James Haskins, I Am Somebody! A Biography of Jesse Jackson (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 21.

Anna Kosof, Jesse Jackson (New York: Franklin Watts, 1987).

Patricia C. McKissack, Jesse Jackson: A Biography (New York: Scholastic, 1989).

Steven Otfinoski, Jesse Jackson: A Voice for Change (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1989).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 49-51.

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 5-11.

Charnan Simon, Jesse Jackson: I Am Somebody! (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1997).

Paul Westman, Jesse Jackson: I Am Somebody, illus. Judith Leo (Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1981).

Brenda Wilkinson, Jesse Jackson: Still Fighting for the Dream (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1990).

Mahalia Jackson (1911?/1912-1972) [gospel singer]

Montrew Dunham, Mahalia Jackson: Young Gospel Singer, illus Robert Doremus (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1972/1995).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 60-61.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 114-119.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 141-146.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 51.

Jesse Jackson, Make a Joyful Noise unto the Lord: The Life of Mahalia Jackson, Queen of Gospel Singers (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1974).

Hettie Jones, Big Star Fallin' Mama: Five Women in Black Music, rev. ed (New York: Viking, 1995), 56-77.

Charles K. Wolfe, Mahalia Jackson[: Gospel Singer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Michael Jackson (1958-) [singer, dancer]

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 189-92.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 166-169.

D. L. Mabery, This Is Michael Jackson (Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Pub., 1984).

Gordon Matthews, Michael Jackson (New York: Julian Messner, 1984).

Barbara McCall, Marvelous Michael Jackson: An Unauthorized Biography (Middletown, CT: Weekly Reader Books, 1984).

Stewart Regan, Michael Jackson, designed by Philip Clucas (New York: Greenwich House, 1984).

Reggie Jackson (1946-) [athlete/baseball]

Marshall Burchard, Sports Hero: Reggie Jackson (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1975).

Dick O'Connor, Reggie Jackson: Yankee Superstar (New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1978). Revised edition of Dick O'Connor, Reggie Jackson: Superstar (New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1975).

Andrew Woods, Young Reggie Jackson: Hall of Fame Champion, illus. Allan Eitzen (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1996).

Shirley Ann Jackson (1946-) [scientist, inventor]

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 88-90.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 143-146.

Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897) [former slave, writer, abolitionist]

Jennifer Fleischner, I Was Born a Slave: The Story of Harriet Jacobs, illus. Melanie K. Reim (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1997).

Mary E. Lyons, Letters from a Slave Girl: The Story of Harriet Jacobs (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992).

Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr. (1920-1978) [military, aviator]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 173-175.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 88.

Dr. Stanley P. Jones, African-American Aviators: James Herman Banning, Bessie Coleman, General Daniel "Chappie" James Jr., Benjamin O. Davis Jr., William J. Powell (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 38-43.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 80-91.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 36-37.

Neil Super, Daniel "Chappie" James (Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992).

Judith Jamison (1944-) [dancer, choreographer]

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 175-83.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 61.

Mae C. Jemison (1956-) [first African-American woman astronaut, physician, scientist]

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 165-185.

Liza N. Burby, Mae Jemison: The First African American Woman Astronaut (New York: Rosen Publishing Group's PowerKids Press, 1997).

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 28-29.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 95.

Dr. Stanley P. Jones and L. Octavia Tripp, African-American Astronauts: Guion S. Bluford Jr., Charles F. Bolden Jr., Frederick D. Gregory, Bernard A. Harris Jr., Mae C. Jemison (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 38-43.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 56-59.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 102-104.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 102-103.

Gail Sakurai, Mae Jemison: Space Scientist (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 40-41.

Earvin "Magic" Johnson (1959-) [athlete/basketball]

Sean Dolan, Magic Johnson: Basketball Great (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1993).

Michael E. Goodman, Magic Johnson (New York: Crestwood House, 1988).

Keith Elliot Greenberg, Magic Johnson: Champion with a Cause (Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1992).

Bill Gutman, Magic Johnson: Hero on and off Court (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1992).

James Haskins, Sports Great Magic Johnson, rev. ed. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Bob Italia, [Most Valuable Player: Earvin] Magic Johnson (Edina, MN: Abdo & Daughters, 1992).

Rick L. Johnson, Magic Johnson: Basketball's Smiling Superstar (New York: Dillon, 1992).

Richard Levin, Magic Johnson: Court Magician (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1981).

Bill Morgan, The Magic: Earvin Johnson (New York: Scholastic, 1991).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 16-21.

Laurie Rozakis, Magic Johnson: Basketball Immortal (Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Enterprises, 1993).

Martin Schwabacher, Magic Johnson[: Basketball Wizard] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1994).

Henry Johnson (1897-1919) [military]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 133-134.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 173-180.

Jack Johnson (1878-1946) [athlete/boxing]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 51.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 66-67.

Robert Jakoubek, Jack Johnson: Heavyweight Champion (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) [writer, editor, scholar, songwriter]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 43.

Ophelia Settle Egypt, James Weldon Johnson, illus. Moneta Barnett (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1974).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 63-65.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 22.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, James Weldon Johnson: "Lift Every Voice and Sing" (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 21-31.

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 12-18.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 137-149.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 28-37.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 88-90.

Dorothy Sterling and Benjamin Quarles, Lift Every Voice: The Lives of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary Church Terrell, and James Weldon Johnson, illus. Ernest Crichlow (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday & Co., 1965), 82-110.

Jane Tolbert-Rouchaleau, James Weldon Johnson (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

John H. Johnson (1918-) [publisher]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 86.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 114-119.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 16-21.

Larry Johnson (1969-) [athlete/basketball]

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 22-25.

Lonnie Johnson (1949-) [inventor]

Fred M. B. Amram, African-American Inventors: Lonnie Johnson, Frederick McKinley Jones, Marjorie Stewart Joyner, Elijah McCoy, Garrett Augustus Morgan (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 8-13.

Laura S. Jeffrey, American Inventors of the 20th Century (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 94-102.

Michael Johnson (1967-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 55-57.

Mordecai W. Johnson (1890-1976) [educator]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 56.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 126-132.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 167-176.

Rafer Johnson (1935-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 16-21.

William H. Johnson (1901-1970) [artist]

Gwen Everett, Li'l Sis and Uncle Willie: A Story Based on the Life and Paintings of William H. Johnson, illus. William H. Johnson (Washington, DC/New York: National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution/Rizzoli, 1991).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 52-54.

Frederick McKinley Jones (1892?/1893-1961) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 144-145.

Fred M. B. Amram, African-American Inventors: Lonnie Johnson, Frederick McKinley Jones, Marjorie Stewart Joyner, Elijah McCoy, Garrett Augustus Morgan (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 6-7, 14-19, 44.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 58.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 74-76.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 46-61. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 44-59.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 82-84.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 85-88.

James Earl Jones (1931-) [actor]

Judy L. Hasday, James Earl Jones (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub./Main Line Book Co., 1998).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 55-57.

Quincy Jones (1933-) [songwriter, music producer]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 130-134.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 169-174.

Robert Jones (1951-) [scientist]

Jetty St. John, African-American Scientists: Robert Jones, Reatha Clark King, Walter Massey, Franklyn G. Prendergast, Larry Shannon (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 30-37.

Scott Joplin (1868-1917) [ragtime musician, composer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 97-98.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 41.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 37-42.

James Haskins, with Kathleen Benson, Scott Joplin: The Man Who Made Ragtime (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1978).

Barbara Mitchell, Raggin': A Story about Scott Joplin, illus. Hetty Mitchell (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1987).

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 10-18.

Katherine Preston, Scott Joplin[: Composer] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Barbara Jordan (1936-1996) [politician]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 83.

Linda Carlson Johnson, Barbara Jordan: Congresswoman (New York: Blackbirch Press/Rosen Pub., 1990).

Diane Patrick-Wexler, Barbara Jordan[: Lawmaker, Teacher, Political Leader] (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1996).

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 62-67.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 19-25.

Lisa R. Rhodes, Barbara Jordan: Voice of Democracy (New York: Franklin Watts, 1998).

Naurice Roberts, Barbara Jordan: The Great Lady from Texas (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984).

Michael Jordan (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

Nathan Aaseng, Sports Great Michael Jordan (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 30-33.

Philip Brooks, Michael Jordan: Beyond Air (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995).

Matt Christopher, [On the Court with . . .] Michael Jordan (Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1996).

Sean Dolan, Michael Jordan[: Basketball Superstar] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1996).

Sean Dolan, Michael Jordan: Basketball Great (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Eloise Greenfield, For the Love of the Game: Michael Jordan and Me, illus. Jan Spivey Gilchrist (New York: HarperCollins, 1997).

Bill Gutman, Michael Jordan: Basketball Champ (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1992).

Bill Gutman, Teammates: Michael Jordan and Scottie Pippen (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1998).

Bob Italia, [Most Valuable Player:] Michael Jordan (Edina, MN: Abdo & Daughters, 1992).

Ron Knapp, Top 10 Basketball Scorers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 26-29.

Jesse Kornbluth, Airborne: The Triumph and Struggle of Michael Jordan (New York: Macmillan Books for Young Readers, 1995).

S. A. Kramer, Basketball's Greatest Players[: A Step 4 Book] (New York: Random House, 1997), 36-43.

Robert Lipsyte, [Superstar Lineup:] Michael Jordan (New York: HarperCollins, 1994).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 42-49.

Thomas S. Owens, Michael Jordan: Legendary Guard (New York: Rosen Publishing Group's PowerKids Press, 1997).

Thomas R. Raber, Michael Jordan: Basketball Skywalker (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1992).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 22-27.

James R. Rothaus, Michael Jordan (Mankato, MN: The Child's World, 1991).

Florence Griffith Joyner (1959-) [athlete/track and field]

Nathan Aaseng, Florence Griffith Joyner: Dazzling Olympian (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1989).

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 22-27.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 66.

April Koral, Florence Griffith Joyner: Track and Field Star (New York: Franklin Watts, 1992).

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 78-82.

Martha Wickham, Superstars of Women's Track and Field (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997), 38-47.

Jackie Joyner-Kersee (1962-) [athlete/track and field]

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 186-200.

Neil Cohen, Jackie Joyner-Kersee (Boston: A Sports Illustrated for Kids Book, 1992).

Margaret J. Goldstein and Jennifer Larson, Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Superwoman (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1994).

Carl R. Green, Jackie Joyner-Kersee (New York: Crestwood House, 1994).

Geri Harrington, Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Champion Athlete (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 92-95.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 28-33.

Martha Wickham, Superstars of Women's Track and Field (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997), 48-59.

Marjorie Stewart Joyner (1896-1994) [inventor]

Fred M. B. Amram, African-American Inventors: Lonnie Johnson, Frederick McKinley Jones, Marjorie Stewart Joyner, Elijah McCoy, Garrett Augustus Morgan (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 4-5, 21-27.

Percy Lavon Julian (1899-1975) [scientist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 167-168.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 66.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 122-145.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 75-79.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 82-85.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 38-45.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 95-101.

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 41-53.

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) [scientist]

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 161-175.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 92-115.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 69-73.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 81-84.

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 28-40.

Ron Karenga [Ron Ndabezitha Everett-Karenga] (1941-) [black nationalist]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 203-215.

Ulysses Kay (1917-1995) [composer]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 23.

Elizabeth Keckley (1818-1907) [dressmaker to Mary Todd Lincoln, abolitionist]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 47-51.

Patrick Kelly (1954-1990) [fashion designer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 49-51.

Sharon Pratt Kelly (1944-) [politician]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 58-60.

Shawn Kemp (1969-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 34-37.

Stew Thornley, Shawn Kemp: Star Forward (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Willie Kennard [Buffalo soldier. U. S. Marshal]

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Cowboys, illus. Richard Leonard (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991), 57-65.

(Mary) Beatrice Davidson Kenner (1912-) [inventor]

Laura S. Jeffrey, American Inventors of the 20th Century (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 28-35.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 147-148.

Jason Kidd (1973-) [athlete/basketball]

Brant James, Jason Kidd (New York: Chelsea House, 1997).

John Albert Torres, Sports Great Jason Kidd (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

B. B. King (1925-) [blues musician]

David Shirley, Every Day I Sing the Blues: The Story of B. B. King (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995).

Coretta Scott King (1927-) [civil rights activist]

Sondra Henry and Emily Taitz, Coretta Scott King: Keeper of the Dream (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 18.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 77-81.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Dare to Dream: Coretta Scott King and the Civil Rights Movement, illus. Anna Rich (New York: Lodestar/Penguin, 1994).

Diane Patrick, Coretta Scott King (New York: Franklin Watts, 1991).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 16-21.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 26-32.

Lisa Renee Rhodes, Coretta Scott King (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

Paula Taylor, Coretta King: A Woman of Peace, illus. Harold Henriksen (Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1974).

Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) [leading civil rights activist, religious leader, Nobel Peace Prize winner]

David A. Adler, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Free at Last, illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1986).

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Martin Luther King, Jr., illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1989).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 204-209.

Rae Bains, Martin Luther King, illus. Hal Frenck (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 98.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1964).

Margaret Boone-Jones, Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Picture Story, illus. Roszel Scott (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1968).

Rosemary L. Bray, Martin Luther King, illus. Malcah Zeldis (New York: Greenwillow Books, 1995).

Ed Clayton, Martin Luther King: The Peaceful Warrior, illus. David Hodges (New York: An Archway Paperback/Pocket Books, 1964/1968).

Jan Colbert and Ann McMillan Harms, eds., Dear Dr. King: Letters from Today's Children to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., photographs by Ernest C. Withers and Roy Cajero (New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1998).

Jean Darby, Martin Luther King, Jr. (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1990).

Margaret Davidson, I Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King (New York: Scholastic, 1986).

James T. de Kay, Meet Martin Luther King, Jr., rev. ed. (New York: Random House, 1969/1993).

Mary Virginia Fox, About Martin Luther King Day (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1989).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 67-69.

Carol Greene, Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Man Who Changed Things (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989).

Rita Hakim, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the March toward Freedom (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Jacqueline L. Harris, Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: Franklin Watts, 1983).

James Haskins, The Life and Death of Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1977).

Jim Haskins, The Day Martin Luther King, Jr., was Shot: A Photo History of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Scholastic, 1992).

Jim Haskins, I Have a Dream: The Life and Words of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1992).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 24-25.

Robert Jakoubek, Martin Luther King, Jr.[: Civil Rights Leader] (New York: Chelsea House, 1989).

Stuart A. Kallen, Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Man and His Dream (Minneapolis: Abdo & Daughters, 1993).

Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream, illus. Ashley Bryan, Carole Byard, Wil Clay, Floyd Cooper, Pat Cummings, Leo and Diane Dillon, Tom Feelings, George Ford, Jan Spivey Gilchrist, Brian Pinkney, Jerry Pinkney, James E. Ransome, Teréa Shaffer, and Kathleen Atkins Wilson (New York: Scholastic Press, 1997).

Kathy Kristensen Lambert, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Civil Rights Leader (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1993).

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 169-171.

Ellen Levine, . . . If You Lived at the Time of Martin Luther King, illus. Beth Peck (New York: Scholastic, 1990).

Myra Cohn Livingston, Let Freedom Ring: A Ballad of Martin Luther King, Jr., illus. Samuel Byrd (New York: Holiday House, 1992).

Linda Lowery, Martin Luther King Day, illus. Hetty Mitchell (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1987).

Jean Marzollo, Happy Birthday, Martin Luther King, illus. J. Brian Pinkney (New York: Scholastic, 1993).

Joanne Mattern, Young Martin Luther King, Jr.: "I Have a Dream," illus. Allan Eitzen (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1992).

Patricia McKissack, Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Man to Remember (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Man of Peace, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 77-81.

Dharathula H. Millender, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Young Man with a Dream, illus. Al Fiorentino (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1969/1983).

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 259-71.

Diane Patrick, Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: Franklin Watts, 1990).

Lillie Patterson, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Freedom Movement (New York: Facts on File, 1989).

Gary Paulsen and Dan Thies, Martin Luther King: The Man Who Climbed the Mountain (Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Editions, 1976).

Louise Quayle, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Dreams for a Nation (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1989).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 22-27.

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 19-25.

Faith Ringgold, My Dream of Martin Luther King (New York: Crown Pub., 1995).

Peter and Connie Roop, Martin Luther King Jr. (Des Plaines, IL: Heinemann Interactive Library, 1998).

Jeanne A. Rowe, An Album of Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: Franklin Watts, 1970).

Valerie Schloredt, Martin Luther King, Jr.: America's Great Nonviolent Leader in the Struggle for Human Rights (Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Pub., 1988).

Michael A. Schuman, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Leader for Civil Rights (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1996).

Nancy Shuker, Martin Luther King (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1985).

Kathie Billingslea Smith, Martin Luther King, Jr., illus. James Seward (New York: Julian Messner, 1987).

R. Conrad Stein, The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. (Danbury, CT: Children's Press/Grolier Pub., 1996).

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 155-162.

Jeanne Strazzabosco, Learning about Dignity from the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1996).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 12-24.

Beth P. Wilson, Giants for Justice: Bethune, Randolph, and King (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978).

John F. Wukovits, The Importance of Martin Luther King Jr. (San Diego: Lucent Books, 1999).

Reatha Clark King (1938-) [scientist]

Jetty St. John, African-American Scientists: Robert Jones, Reatha Clark King, Walter Massey, Franklyn G. Prendergast, Larry Shannon (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 22-29.

Elizabeth Duncan Koontz (1919-) [educator]

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 70-72.

Lewis Howard Latimer (1848-1928) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 95-96.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 27.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 71-87.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 49-55.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 80-93. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 78-91.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 61-69.

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 216-29.

Winifred Latimer Norman and Lily Patterson, Lewis Latimer[: Scientist] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 31-38.

Jacob Lawrence (1917-) [artist]

John Duggleby, Story Painter: The Life of Jacob Lawrence, illus. Jacob Lawrence (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1998).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 112-115.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 101-110.

Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter (1880s/1885?-1949) [folk singer, musician]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 55-61.

Spike Lee (1957-) [film director]

Bob Bernotas, Spike Lee: Filmmaker (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1993).

James Earl Hardy, Spike Lee[: Filmmaker] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 151-155.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 34-39.

Bob Lemmons [cowboy]

Julius Lester, Black Cowboy, Wild Horses: A True Story, illus. Jerry Pinkney (New York: Dial Books, 1998).

Sugar Ray Leonard (1956-) [athlete/boxing]

S. H. Burchard, Sports Star, Sugar Ray Leonard (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983).

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 28-33.

Bert Rosenthal, Sugar Ray Leonard: The Baby-Faced Boxer (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1982).

Lisa Leslie (1972-) [athlete/basketball]

Molly Jackel and Joe Layden, WNBA Superstars (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 30-37.

Michelle Smith, She's Got Game: 10 Stars of the WNBA (New York: Scholastic, 1999), 42-49.

Julius Lester (1939-) [writer, children's book writer]

Carl Lewis (1961-) [athlete/track and field]

Steve Klots, Carl Lewis[: Champion Athlete] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1995).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 34-39.

Bert Rosenthal, Carl Lewis: The Second Jesse Owens (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984).

Edmonia Lewis (1843/1844/1845-1890/1900/1909 or 1910 or 1911) [sculptor]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 26.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 35.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 55-58.

William Loren Katz and Paula A. Franklin, Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 37-48.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 74-77.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 18-19.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 91-92.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 23-38.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 43.

Abbey Lincoln (1930-) [singer, actor]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 52-54.

Alain Locke (1885/1886-1954) [scholar and educator]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 69-70.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 27.

Jermain Wesley Loguen (1813-1872] [abolitionist, Underground Railroad conductor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 61-62.

Joe Louis (1914-1981) [athlete/boxing]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 155-156.

Tom Feelings, Tommy Traveller in the World of Black History (New York: Black Butterfly Children's Books, 1991), 33-42.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 70-71.

Robert Jakoubek, Joe Louis: Heavyweight Champion (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Bill Libby, Joe Louis: The Brown Bomber (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1980).

Robert Lipsyte, Joe Louis: A Champ for All America (New York: HarperTrophy, 1994).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 101-111.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 277-289.

Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743?-1803) [Haitian revolutionary leader]

Thomas and Dorothy Hoobler, Toussaint L'Ouverture (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Jacob Lawrence, with Walter Dean Myers, Toussaint L'Ouverture: The Fight for Haiti's Freedom (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1996). [Orig. paintings 1938-39]

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996), 41-59.

Laurence Santrey, Toussaint L'Ouverture: Lover of Liberty, illus. Gershom Griffith (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1994).

Nat Love, "Deadwood Dick" (1854-1921) [cowboy]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 89-90.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 29.

Harold W. Felton, Nat Love, Negro Cowboy, illus. David Hodges (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1969).

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 113-17.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 51-53.

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Cowboys, illus. Richard Leonard (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991), 5-23.

Robert Miller, The Story of Nat Love, illus. Michael Bryant (Morristown, NJ: Silver Press, 1995).

Lillian Schlissel, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

Mary Eliza Mahoney (1845-1926) [first black graduate nurse]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 87.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 54-56.

Karl Malone (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

Ron Knapp, Top 10 Basketball Scorers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 30-33.

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 10-17.

Richard Rambeck, Karl Malone (Mankato, MN: The Child's World, 1993). [also available in Spanish]

George Rekela, Karl Malone: Star Forward (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Jeff Savage, Sports Great Karl Malone (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1995).

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 26-29.

Robert Schnakenberg, Teammates: Karl Malone and John Stockton (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1998).

Stephon Marbury [athlete/basketball]

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 34-41.

Branford Marsalis (1960-) [jazz musician]

Bob Bernotas, Branford Marsalis: Jazz Musician (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994).

Wynton Marsalis (1961-) [jazz musician]

Craig Awmiller, Wynton Marsalis: Gifted Trumpet Player (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1996).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 55-57.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 176-182.

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 95-103.

Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) [Supreme Court Justice]

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Thurgood Marshall, illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1997).

Lisa Aldred, Thurgood Marshall[: Supreme Court Justice] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 184-186.

Joe Arthur, The Story of Thurgood Marshall: Justice for All (Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Pub., 1995).

Rae Bains, Thurgood Marshall: Fight for Justice, illus. Gershom Griffith (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1993).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 74.

Eric Carpenter, Young Thurgood Marshall: Fighter for Equality, illus. James Watling (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1996).

Montrew Dunham, Thurgood Marshall: Young Justice, illus Meryl Henderson (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1998).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 73-74.

Carol Greene, Thurgood Marshall: First African-American Supreme Court Justice (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1991).

James Haskins, Thurgood Marshall: A Life for Justice (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1992).

Debra Hess, Thurgood Marshall: The Fight for Equal Justice (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1990).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 28.

Stuart A. Kallen, Thurgood Marshall: A Dream of Justice for All (Minneapolis: Abdo & Daughters, 1993).

Deborah Kent, Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court (New York: Children's Press, 1997).

Elizabeth Krug, Thurgood Marshall; Champion of Civil Rights (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1993).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 67-71.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 79.

G. S. Prentzas, Thurgood Marshall: Champion of Justice (New York: Chelsea Juniors/Main Line Book Co., 1994).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 28-33.

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 33-39.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 55-71.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 33-34.

Biddy Mason (1818/1820-1891) [slave pioneer who won legal freedom, nurse, humanitarian]

Jeri Chase Ferris, With Open Hands: A Story about Biddy Mason, illus. Ralph L. Ramstad (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1999).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 69.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 87-90.

Ruth Pelz, Black Heroes of the Wild West, illus. Leandro Della Paina (Seattle: Open Hand Pub./Talman, 1990), 30-35.

Lillian Schlissel, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

Walter Massey (1938-) [scientist]

Jetty St. John, African-American Scientists: Robert Jones, Reatha Clark King, Walter Massey, Franklyn G. Prendergast, Larry Shannon (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 38-43.

Jan E[a]rnst Matzeliger (1852-1889) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 91-92.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 36-50.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 42-44.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 36-40.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 62-79. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 60-77.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 48-53.

Barbara Mitchell, Shoes for Everyone: A Story about Jan Matzeliger, illus. Hetty Mitchell (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1986).

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 53-56.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 93-96.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 43-48.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 43.

Benjamin E. Mays (1895-1984) [religious educator, activist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 63.

Willie Mays (1931-) [athlete/baseball]

John Grabowski, Willie Mays (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 29.

Howard Liss, The Willie Mays Album (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1966).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 40-45.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 302-312.

Louis Sabin, Willie Mays: Young Superstar, illus. John R. Jones (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1990).

Oseola McCarty (1908?-) [washerwoman/benefactor of scholarship for needy students]

Evelyn Coleman, The Riches of Oseola McCarty, illus. Daniel Minter (Morton Grove, IL: Albert Whitman & Co., 1998).

Claude McCay (1889-1948) [poet]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 54.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 74-75.

Willie McCovey (1938-) [athlete/baseball]

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Home Run Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 26-29.

Elijah McCoy ([1843?]1844[1848?]-1929) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 112.

Fred M. B. Amram, African-American Inventors: Lonnie Johnson, Frederick McKinley Jones, Marjorie Stewart Joyner, Elijah McCoy, Garrett Augustus Morgan (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 28-33.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 26.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 51-59.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 40-45.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 94-105. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 92-103.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 56-60.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 27-30.

Wendy Towle, The Real McCoy: The Life of an African-American Inventor, illus. Wil Clay (New York: Scholastic, 1993).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 42-43.

Nikki McCray (1971-) [athlete/basketball]

Michelle Smith, She's Got Game: 10 Stars of the WNBA (New York: Scholastic, 1999), 66-73.

Hattie McDaniel (1895/1898?-1952) [actor]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 47.

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 16-21.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 80-82.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 56.

Fred McGriff (1963-) [athlete/baseball]

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Home Run Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 30-33.

Patricia McKissack (1944-) [children's book author]

Patricia McKissack, Can You Imagine?, photographs by Miles Pinkney (Katonah, NY: Richard C. Owen Pub., 1997).

Floyd McKissick (1922-) [civil rights/revolutionary activist]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 75-91.

Ronald McNair (1950-1986) [astronaut]

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 72-80.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 182-200.

Corinne Naden, Ronald McNair[: Astronaut] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Dena Shaw, Ronald McNair[: Challenger Astronaut] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1994).

Carmen McRae (1922-1994) [jazz singer, musician]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 58-60.

James Meredith (1933-) [civil rights activist]

Dan Elish, James Meredith and School Desegregation (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Oscar Micheaux (1884-1951) [film director and producer]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 52.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 76-77.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 83-87.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 128-137.

Cheryl Miller (1964-) [athlete/basketball]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 67.

J. Kelly, Superstars of Women's Basketball (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997/1998), 28-39.

Dorie Miller (1919-1943) [military]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 181-186.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 57.

Catherine Reef, Black Fighting Men: A Proud History (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1994), 46-49.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 316-324.

Reggie Miller (1965-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Reggie Miller: Star Guard (Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999).

John Albert Torres, Top Ten Basketball Three-Point Shooters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999), 26-29.

Barry Wilner, Reggie Miller (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

Tom Miller [artist]

Tom Miller, Can a Coal Scuttle Fly? words by Camay Calloway Murphy (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1996).

Arthur Mitchell (1935-) [ballet dancer, founder of all-black ballet company]

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 137-51.

Thelonious Monk (1917-1982) [jazz musician and composer]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 77-78.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 28-33.

Benjamin Montgomery (1819-1877) [slave, inventor]

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 28, 33-34.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 20-24.

John P. Moon (1938-) [inventor]

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 132-136.

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 94-106.

Audley "Queen Mother" Moore (1898-) [civil rights activist, pan-African nationalist]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 78.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 12.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 55-57.

Garrett A. Morgan ([1875?] 1877-1963) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 129-130.

Fred M. B. Amram, African-American Inventors: Lonnie Johnson, Frederick McKinley Jones, Marjorie Stewart Joyner, Elijah McCoy, Garrett Augustus Morgan (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 34-43.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 49.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 88-103.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 52-54.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 73-75.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 20-31. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 16-29.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 76-84.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 38-39.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 75-80.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 69-79.

Rose Morgan (1913-) [entrepreneur]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 22-27.

Toni Morrison (1931-) [author, winner of Nobel Prize for Literature]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 214-215.

Virginia Aronson, Female Firsts in Their Field: Literature (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1999), 44-51.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 102.

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 145-164.

Carmen Bredeson, American Writers of the Twentieth Century (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 84-92.

Douglas Century, Toni Morrison[: Author] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 79.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 20-21.

Diane Patrick-Wexler, Toni Morrison[: Nobel Prizewinner, Writer, Educator] (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1997).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 109.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 34-39.

Jelly Roll Morton (1885-1941) [ragtime and jazz musician, composer]

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 61-69.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 65-71.

Carol Moseley-Braun (1947-) [politician]

Mellonee Carrigan, Carol Moseley-Braun: Breaking Barriers (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1994).

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 22-27.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 104-105.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 33-39.

Edwin Moses (1955-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 34-39.

Constance Baker Motley (1921-) [federal judge]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 61-63.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 30.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 80.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 84-86.

Alonzo Mourning (1970-) [athlete/basketball]

Bill Gutman, Alonzo Mourning: Center of Attention (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1997).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 26-33.

Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) [black nationalist leader and religious leader]

Malu Halasa, Elijah Muhammad: Religious Leader (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Hugh N. Mulzac (1886-1971) [mariner]

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 70-72.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 163-172.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 97-99.

Eddie Murphy (1961-) [comedian, actor]

Teresa Koenig and Rivian Bell, Eddie Murphy (Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1985).

Deborah A. Wilburn, Eddie Murphy: Entertainer (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1993).

Walter Dean Myers (1937-) [children's book writer]

Deborah Kovacs and James Preller, Meet the Authors and Illustrators: 60 Creators of Favorite Children's Books Talk about Their Work, Vol. 1 (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1991), 120-121.

Penelope Yunghans, Prize Winners: Ten Writers for Young Readers (Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 1995), 138-152.

Effie Lee Newsome (1885-19??) [poet, children's book author]

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 56-60.

Huey P. Newton (1941-) [revolutionary]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 161-184.

Hakeem Olajuwon (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

Matt Christopher, On the Court with . . . Hakeem Olajuwon (Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1997).

Bill Gutman, Hakeem Olajuwon: Superstar Center (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1995).

Ron Knapp, Sports Great Hakeem Olajuwon (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Fred McMane, Hakeem Olajuwon (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 66-73.

Ken Rappoport, Guts and Glory: Making It in the NBA (New York: Walker & Co., 1997), 66-81.

George R. Rekela, Hakeem Olajuwon: Tower of Power (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub. Co, 1993).

Chris W. Sehnert, [Most Valuable Player:] Hakeem Olajuwon (Minneapolis, MN: Abdo & Daughters, 1996).

John Albert Torres, Hakeem Olajuwon: Star Center (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1997).

Shaquille O'Neal (1972-) [athlete/basketball]

Bob Castello, Matt Mersom, and Nick Rousso, Meet Shaquille O'Neal (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 1993).

Ted Cox, Shaquille O'Neal: Shaq Attack (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993).

Bill Gutman, Shaquille O'Neal: A Biography (New York: Archway Paperback/Pocket Books, 1993).

Bill Gutman, Shaquille O'Neal: Basketball Sensation (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Glen Macnow, Shaquille O'Neal: Star Center (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1996).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 58-65.

Richard Rambeck, Shaquille O'Neal (Plymouth, MN: The Child's World, 1996).]

Ken Rappoport, Shaquille O'Neal (New York: Walker & Co., 1994).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 52-54.

Stephanie St. Pierre, Meet Shaquille O'Neal (New York: Random House, 1994).

Michael J. Sullivan, Sports Great Shaquille O'Neal, rev. ed. (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Edward Tallman, Shaquille O'Neal (New York: Dillon Press, 1994).

Brad Townsend, Shaquille O'Neal: Center of Attention (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub., 1994).

Tim Ungs, Shaquille O'Neal (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Bob Woods, Shaquille O'Neal (Mahwah, NJ: Whistlestop/Troll Associates, 1995).

Jesse Owens (1913-1980) [athlete/track and field]

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Jesse Owens, illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1992).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 148-149.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 80.

Tony Gentry, Jesse Owens: Champion Athlete (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1990).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 32.

Judith Pinkerton Josephson, Jesse Owens: Track and Field Legend (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1997).

Mervyn Kaufman, Jesse Owens, illus. Larry Johnson (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1973).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Jesse Owens: Olympic Star, illus. Michael David Biegel (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Hank Nuwer, The Legend of Jesse Owens (New York: Franklin Watts/Grolier Pub., 1998).

Jesse Owens, with Paul G. Neimark, The Jesse Owens Story (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1970).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 53.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 55-57.

Rick Rennert, Jesse Owens[: Champion Athlete] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1992).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 114-122.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 290-301.

Francene Sabin, Jesse Owens: Olympic Hero, illus. Hal Frenck (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1986).

William R. Sanford and Carl R. Green, Jesse Owens (New York: Crestwood House, 1992).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 34-35.

Leroy B. "Satchel" Paige (ca. 1906-1982/1987?) [athlete/baseball]

Tom Gilbert, Baseball and the Color Line (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995), 123-27.

Kathryn Long Humphrey, Satchel Paige (New York: Franklin Watts, 1988).

Norman L. Macht, Satchel Paige (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Satchel Paige: The Best Arm in Baseball, illus. Michael David Biegel (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 58-59.

Lesa Cline-Ransome, Satchel Paige, illus. James E. Ransome (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2000).

Robert Rubin, Satchel Paige: All-Time Baseball Great (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1974).

David Shirley, Satchel Paige: Baseball Great (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1993).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 149-160.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 32-33.

Charlie Parker (1920-1955) [jazz musician]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 81-82.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 34-39.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 105-108.

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 67-75.

Chris Raschka, Charlie Parker Played Be Bop, illus. Chris Raschka (New York: Orchard Books, 1992).

Gordon Parks (1912-) [photographer, cinematographer, film director]

Skip Berry, Gordon Parks: Photographer (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 28-33.

Rosa Parks (1913-) [civil rights activist]

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Rosa Parks, illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1993).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 181-183.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 79.

Anne Benjamin, Young Rosa Parks: Civil Rights Heroine, illus. Ellen Beier (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1996).

Keith Brandt, Rosa Parks: Fight for Freedom, illus. Gershom Griffith (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1993).

Teresa Celsi, Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Kai Friese, Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1990).

Eloise Greenfield, Rosa Parks, illus. Gil Ashby (New York: HarperTrophy, 1973/1995).

Gini Holland, Rosa Parks, illus. David Price (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1997).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 33.

Mary Hull, Rosa Parks[: Civil Rights Leader] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 16.

Rosa Parks, with Jim Haskins, I am Rosa Parks, illus. Wil Clay (New York: Dial Books for Young Readers, 1997).

Rosa Parks, with Jim Haskins, Rosa Parks: My Story (New York: Dial Books, 1992).

Rosa Parks, with Gregory J. Reed, Dear Mrs. Parks: A Dialogue with Today's Youth (New York: Lee & Low, 1996).

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 88-90.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 34-39.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 40-46.

Faith Ringgold, If a Bus Could Talk: The Story of Rosa Parks (New York: Aimon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1999).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 25-34.

Philip A. Payton, Jr. (1876-1917) [Harlem realtor]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 79-82.

Walter Payton (1954-1999) [athlete/football]

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 26-29.

R. Conrad Stein, Walter Payton: Record-Breaking Runner (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987).

Chuck Person (1964-) [athlete/basketball]

John Albert Torres, Top Ten Basketball Three-Point Shooters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999), 30-33.

Ann Petry (1911-) [author]

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 150-62.

Bill Pickett (1860?/1870-1932) [cowboy]

Andrea Davis Pinkney, Bill Pickett: Rodeo-Ridin' Cowboy, illus. Brian Pinkney (San Diego: Gulliver Books/Harcourt Brace & Co., 1996).

Sibyl Hancock, Bill Pickett: First Black Rodeo Star, illus. Lorinda Bryan Cauley (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977).

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 46-48.

Colonel Bailey C. Hanes, Bill Pickett, Bulldogger: The Biography of a Black Cowboy (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 132-136.

William Loren Katz and Paula A. Franklin, Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 63-73.

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Cowboys, illus. Richard Leonard (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991), 67-78.

Ruth Pelz, Black Heroes of the Wild West, illus. Leandro Della Paina (Seattle: Open Hand Pub./Talman, 1990), 48-52.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 26-27.

Lillian Schlissel, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 32.

P. B. S. Pinchback [Pinckney Benton Stuart] (1837-1921) [politician]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 85-86.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 24.

Elizabeth F. Chittenden, Profiles in Black and White: Stories of Men and Women Who Fought against Slavery (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973), 159-175.

Brian Pinkney (1961-) [children's book illustrator]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists, Vol. Two: Conversations with Thomas B. Allen, Mary Jane Begin, Floyd Cooper, Julie Downing, Denise Fleming, Sheila Hamanaka, Kevin Henkes, William Joyce, Maira Kalman, Deborah Nourse Lattimore, Brian Pinkney, Vera B. Williams, and David Wisniewski (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995), 70-75.

Jerry Pinkney (1939-) [children's book illustrator, artist]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists: Conversations with Victoria Chess, Pat Cummings, Leo and Diane Dillon, Richard Egielski, Lois Ehlert, Lisa Campbell Ernst, Tom Feelings, Steven Kellogg, Jerry Pinkney, Amy Schwartz, Lane Smith, Chris Van Allsburg, and David Wiesner (New York: Bradbury Press, 1992), 60-65.

Laurie Lanzen Harris and Cherie D. Abbey, eds., Biography Today Author Series, Vol. 2: Profiles of People of Interest to Young Readers (Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, Inc., 1996), 60-68.

Deborah Kovacs and James Preller, Meet the Authors and Illustrators: 60 Creators of Favorite Children's Books Talk about Their Work, Vol. 1 (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1991), 50-51.

Scottie Pippen (1965-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 38-41.

Bill Gutman, Scottie Pippen: The Do-Everything Superstar (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1997).

Bill Gutman, Teammates: Michael Jordan and Scottie Pippen (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1998).

Fred McMane, Scottie Pippen (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 42-49.

Scottie Pippen, with Greg Brown, Reach Higher, illus. Doug Keith (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub., 1996).

Ken Rappoport, Scottie Pippen: Star Forward (Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999).

Howard Reiser, Scottie Pippen: Prince of the Court (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993).

Horace Pippin (1888-1946) [artist]

Mary E. Lyons, Starting Home: The Story of Horace Pippin, Painter (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993).

Sidney Poitier (1924? 1927-) [actor]

Carol Bergman, Sidney Poitier[: Actor] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 83-84.

Sidney Poitier, This Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 78.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 40-45.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 81-86.

Pompey (1700s) [slave patriot hero of the American Revolution]

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 100-102.

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (1908-1972) [politician]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 75.

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 28-33.

James Haskins, Adam Clayton Powell: Portrait of a Marching Black (New York: Dial Press, 1974).

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 30-59.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 34.

Robert E. Jakoubek, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.[: Political Leader] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 40-46.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 197-206.

Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. (1865-) [religious leader]

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 185-193.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 200-210.

Colin Powell (1937-) [military]

Melissa Banta, Colin Powell: A Complete Soldier (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1995/1998).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 102.

Rose Blue and Corinne J. Naden, Colin Powell: Straight to the Top (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Warren Brown, Colin Powell: Military Leader (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 34-39.

Jonathon Everston, with Andrea Raab, Colin Powell (New York: Bantam Skylark, 1991).

Jim Haskins, Colin Powell: A Biography (New York: Scholastic, 1992).

Libby Hughes, Colin Powell: A Man of Quality (Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1996).

Elaine Landau, Colin Powell: Four-Star General (New York: Franklin Watts, 1991).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 89-91.

Diane Patrick-Wexler, Colin Powell[: Four-Star General, Military Advisor, Desert Storm Hero] (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1996).

Anne Schraff, Colin Powell: Soldier and Patriot (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997).

Carl Senna, Colin Powell: A Man of War and Peace (New York: Walker & Co., 1992).

Harriet Powers (1837-1911) [artist]

Mary E. Lyons, Stitching Stars: The Story Quilts of Harriet Powers (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993).

Franklyn G. Prendergast (1945-) [scientist]

Jetty St. John, African-American Scientists: Robert Jones, Reatha Clark King, Walter Massey, Franklyn G. Prendergast, Larry Shannon (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 8-13.

Leontyne Price (1927-) [opera singer]

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 127-144.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 136-139.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 56.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 92-95.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 87-93.

Richard Steins, Leontyne Price: Opera Superstar (Woodbridge, CT: Blackbirch Press, 1993).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 49-57.

Sylvia B. Williams, Leontyne Price: Opera Superstar (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984/1990).

Charley Pride (1938-) [singer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 61-63.

Prince (1958-) [singer, songwriter, actor]

D. L. Mabery, Prince (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1985).

Lucy Terry Prince (1730/1733-1821) [poet]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 10-11.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 39-44.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 30.

Ernesta Procope (1920s/1930s?-) [entrepreneur]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 52-54.

Barbara Gardner Proctor (1933-) [entrepreneur]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 55-57.

Gabriel Prosser (ca. 1775/1776-1800) [slave rebel leader]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 32.

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 44-48.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 51-63.

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996), 60-70.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 103-106.

Richard Pryor (1940-) [comedian, actor]

James Haskins, Richard Pryor -- A Man and His Madness: A Biography (New York: Beaufort Books, 1984). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 22-27.

Kirby Puckett (1961-) [athlete/baseball]

Kirby Puckett, as told to Greg Brown, Be the Best You Can Be, illus. Tim Houle (Minneapolis, MN: Waldman House Press, 1993).

Richard Rambeck, Kirby Puckett ([Mankato, MN] Chicago: The Child's World, 1993). [also available in Spanish]

Benjamin Quarles (1904-) [historian/scholar]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 35.

Gertrude Pridgett "Ma" Rainey (1886-1939) ["mother of the blues"]

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 71-76.

Hettie Jones, Big Star Fallin' Mama: Five Women in Black Music, rev. ed (New York: Viking, 1995), 16-31.

Dudley Randall (1914-) [poet, publisher]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 55-57.

A. Philip Randolph (1889-1979) [labor organizer, civil rights activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 159-160.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 55.

Robert Cwiklik, A. Philip Randolph and the Labor Movement (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 84-85.

Sally Hanley, A. Philip Randolph[: Labor Leader] (New York: Chelsea House, 1989).

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 112-117.

Lillie Patterson, A. Philip Randolph: Messenger for the Masses (New York: Facts on File, 1996).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 58-60.

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 47-53.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 236-246.

Beth P. Wilson, Giants for Justice: Bethune, Randolph, and King (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978).

Tracy Reid (1976-) [athlete/basketball]

Michelle Smith, She's Got Game: 10 Stars of the WNBA (New York: Scholastic, 1999), 82-89.

Jerry Rice (1962-) [athlete/football]

Glenn Dickey, Sports Great Jerry Rice (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1993).

Corinne J. Naden and Rose Blue, Jerry Rice (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1995).

Richard Rambeck, Jerry Rice (Plymouth, MN: The Child's World, 1996).

Stew Thornley, Jerry Rice: Star Wide Receiver (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Anna Rich (1956-) [children's book illustrator]

Pat Cummings, ed., Talking with Artists, Vol. Three: Conversations with Peter Catalanotto, Raúl Colón, Lisa Desimini, Jane Dyer, Kevin Hawkes, G. Brian Karas, Betsy Lewin, Ted Lewin, Keiko Narahashi, Elise Primavera, Anna Rich, Peter Sis, Paul O. Zelinski (New York: Clarion Books/Houghton Mifflin, 1999), 70-75.

Lionel Richie (1949-) [singer]

David Nathan, Lionel Richie: An Illustrated Biography (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985).

Mitch Richmond (1965-) [athlete/basketball]

Carl W. Grody, Sports Great Mitch Richmond (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1999).

Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 50.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 20-35.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 27-34.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 106-121. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 104-119.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 41-48.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 107-111.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 14-19.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 42.

Faith Ringgold (1930-) [artist, children's book author and illustrator]

Laurie Lanzen Harris and Cherie D. Abbey, eds., Biography Today Author Series, Vol. 2: Profiles of People of Interest to Young Readers (Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, Inc., 1996), 85-97.

Faith Ringgold, Linda Freeman, and Nancy Roucher, Talking to Faith Ringgold (New York: Crown Pub., 1996).

Robyn Montana Turner, Faith Ringgold (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1993).

Leslie Sills, Inspirations: Stories about Women Artists (Niles, IL: Albert Whitman & Co., 1989), 40-51.

Paul Robeson (1898-1976) [actor, singer, civil rights activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 153-154.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 64.

Scott Ehrlich, Paul Robeson[: Singer and Actor] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 86-87.

Dorothy Butler Gilliam, Paul Robeson: All-American (Washington, DC: The New Republic Book Co., 1976). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Shirley Graham, Paul Robeson: Citizen of the World (New York: Julian Messner, 1946).

Eloise Greenfield, Paul Robeson, illus. George Ford (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1975).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 55-57.

Virginia Hamilton, Paul Robeson: The Life and Times of a Free Black Man (New York: HarperCollins, 1974).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 36.

Rebecca Larsen, Paul Robeson: Hero before His Time (New York: Franklin Watts, 1989).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Paul Robeson: A Voice to Remember, illus. Michael David Biegel (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 74-86.

Susan Robeson, The Whole World in His Hands: A Pictorial History of Paul Robeson (Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1981).

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 95-99.

Charles H. Wright and Norman McRae, eds., Paul Robeson, 1898-1976 (Southfield, MI: Charro Book Co., 1997). [may be suitable for young adults]

David K. Wright, Paul Robeson: Actor, Singer, Political Activist (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Bill "Bojangles" Robinson (1878-1949) [dancer, actor]

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 53-61.

Jim Haskins and N. R. Mitgang, Mr. Bojangles: The Biography of Bill Robinson (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 47-52.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 79-88.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967), 101-104.

David Robinson (1965-) [athlete/basketball]

Hal Bock, David Robinson (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997).

Carl R. Green and Roxanne Ford, David Robinson (New York: Crestwood House, 1994).

Bill Gutman, David Robinson (Mahwah, NJ: Rainbow Bridge/Troll Associates, 1995).

Bill Gutman, David Robinson: NBA Super Center (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1993).

Glen Macnow, David Robinson: Star Center (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1994).

Dawn M. Miller, David Robinson: Backboard Admiral (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub Co., 1991).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 74-79.

Thomas S. Owens, David Robinson: All-Star Center (New York: Rosen Publishing Group's PowerKids Press, 1997).

James R. Rothaus, David Robinson (Mankato, MN: The Child's World, 1991).

Eddie Robinson (1919-) [football coach]

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 124-143.

Frank Robinson (1935-) [athlete/baseball]

Norm L. Macht, Frank Robinson (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Jackie Robinson (1919-1972) [athlete/baseball]

David A. Adler, Jackie Robinson: He Was the First, illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1989).

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Jackie Robinson, illus. Robert Casilla (New York: Holiday House, 1994).

Maury Allen, Jackie Robinson: A Life Remembered (New York: Franklin Watts, 1987).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 164-166.

Mark Alvarez, The Official Baseball Hall of Fame Story of Jackie Robinson (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1990).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 87.

Keith Brandt, Jackie Robinson: A Life of Courage, illus. Marcy Ramsey (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1992).

Karen Mueller Coombs, Jackie Robinson: Baseball's Civil Rights Legend (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1997).

Margaret Davidson, The Story of Jackie Robinson: Bravest Man in Baseball, illus. Floyd Cooper (New York: A Yearling Book/Dell, 1988).

Barry Denenberg, Stealing Home: The Story of Jackie Robinson (New York: Scholastic, 1990).

Derek T. Dingle, First in the Field: Baseball Hero Jackie Robinson (New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1998).

Herb Dunn, Jackie Robinson: Young Sports Trailblazer, illus Meryl Henderson (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1999).

Tom Gilbert, Baseball and the Color Line (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995), 149-52.

Peter Golenbock, Teammates, illus. Kevin Bacon (San Diego: Voyager Books, 1990). [on Jackie Robinson and "Pee Wee" Reese]

Carol Greene, Jackie Robinson: Baseball's First Black Major-Leaguer (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990).

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 90-92.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 138-144.

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 240-242.

Jim O'Connor, Jackie Robinson and the Story of All-Black Baseball, illus. Jim Butcher (New York: Random House, 1989).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 58-60.

Howard Reiser, Jackie Robinson: Baseball Pioneer (New York: Franklin Watts, 1992).

Jackie Robinson and Alfred Duckett, Breakthrough to the Big League: The Story of Jackie Robinson (New York: Harper & Row, 1965).

Jackie Robinson, as told to Alfred Duckett, I Never Had It Made: The Autobiography of Jackie Robinson (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1972). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Kenneth Rudeen, Jackie Robinson, illus. Richard Cuffari (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971).

Kenneth Rudeen, Jackie Robinson, illus. Michael Hays (New York: HarperTrophy, 1996).

Francene Sabin, Jackie Robinson, illus. Michael Sheean (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985).

William R. Sanford and Carl R. Green, Jackie Robinson (New York: Crestwood House, 1992).

Richard Scott, Jackie Robinson[: Baseball Great] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1987).

Russell Shorto, Jackie Robinson and the Breaking of the Color Barrier (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 144-154.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 35-36.

Dennis Rodman (1961-) [athlete/basketball]

Steven Frank, Dennis Rodman (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 34-37.

Charlemae Rollins (1897-1979) [children's librarian, children's book author, mentor]

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 104-119.

June Rooks (1950-) [scientist]

Mary Ellen Verheyden-Hilliard, Scientist and Strategist, June Rooks, illus. Holly Meeker Rom (Bethesda, MD: The Equity Institute, 1988).

Edward Rose (b. late 1700s, d. early to mid-1830s) [Western guide, mountain man]

Harold W. Felton, Edward Rose, Negro Trail Blazer (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967).

A. E. Schraff, Black Courage, illus. Len Ebert (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1969), 82-93.

Diana Ross (1944-) [singer, actor]

James Haskins, Diana Ross: Star Supreme, illus. Jim Spence (New York: Viking Kestrel, 1985).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 58-60.

John Wyeth, Jr., Diana Ross: Entertainer (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Wilma Rudolph (1940-1994) [athlete/track and field]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 171-172.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 104.

Tom Biracree, Wilma Rudolph[: Champion Athlete] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 37.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 65.

Linda Jacobs, Wilma Rudolph: Run for Glory (St. Paul, MN: EMC Corp., 1975).

Kathleen Krull, Wilma Unlimited: How Wilma Rudolph Became the World's Fastest Woman, illus. David Diaz (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1996).

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 119-124.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 98-105.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 61-63.

Victoria Sherrow, Wilma Rudolph: Olympic Champion (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1995).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 49.

Martha Wickham, Superstars of Women's Track and Field (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997), 8-15.

Bill Russell (1934-) [athlete/basketball]

S. A. Kramer, Basketball's Greatest Players[: A Step 4 Book] (New York: Random House, 1997), 6-11.

Miles Shapiro, Bill Russell[: Basketball Great] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

John Russwurm (1799-1851) [publisher, co-founder with Samuel E. Cornish (1795-1858) of first black newspaper in the U.S.]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 15.

Janice Borzendowski, John Russwurm[: Publisher] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Bayard Rustin (1910/1912?-1987) [civil rights activist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 78.

James Haskins, Bayard Rustin: Behind the Scenes of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1997).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 61-63.

Peter Salem (1750-1816) [American Revolutionary War soldier]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 20-21.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 20-21.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 112-116.

Henry Sampson (1934-) [inventor]

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors III: Patricia Bath, Philip Emeagwali, Henry Sampson, Valerie Thomas, Peter Tolliver (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 22-27.

Barry Sanders (1968-) [athlete/football]

Nathan Aaseng, Barry Sanders: Star Running Back (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1994).

Bill Gutman, Barry Sanders: Football's Rushing Champ (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1993).

Ron Knapp, Sports Great Barry Sanders, rev. ed. (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1999).

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 30-33.

Howard Reiser, Barry Sanders: Lion with a Quiet Roar (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993).

John F. Wukovits, Barry Sanders (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Deion Sanders (1967-) [athlete/football]

Bruce Chadwick, Deion Sanders (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

Carl R. Green and Roxanne Ford, Deion Sanders (New York: Crestwood House, 1994).

Jeff Savage, Deion Sanders: Star Athlete (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996).

Augusta Savage (1900-1962) [sculptor, supporter of black artists]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 36.

Gale Sayers (1943-) [athlete/football]

James and Lynn Hahn, Sayers! The Sports Career of Gale Sayers (Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1981).

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 34-37.

Arthur Schomburg (1874-1938) [intellectual, founder of research libraries and academies]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 47.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 35-48.

Dennis Scott (1968-) [athlete/basketball]

John Albert Torres, Top Ten Basketball Three-Point Shooters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1999), 42-45.

Dred Scott (1795? 1800?-1858) [fugitive slave and activist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 55-56.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 16.

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 109-112.

Brendan January, The Dred Scott Decision (Danbury, CT: Children's Press/Grolier Pub., 1998).

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 59-62.

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 110-16.

Mary Ann Shadd (1823-1893) [editor, educator, lawyer]

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 72-89.

Ntozake Shange (1948-) [poet, playwright]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 34-39.

Larry Shannon (1933-) [scientist]

Jetty St. John, African-American Scientists: Robert Jones, Reatha Clark King, Walter Massey, Franklyn G. Prendergast, Larry Shannon (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996), 14-21.

Earl D. Shaw (1937-) [inventor]

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 127-131.

Robert E. Shurney (1921-) [NASA scientist and inventor]

Laura S. Jeffrey, American Inventors of the 20th Century (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 64-73.

Charlie Sifford (1922-) [athlete/golf]

Grant Britt, Charlie Sifford (Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 1998).

Philip Simmons (1912-) [artisan]

Mary E. Lyons, Catching the Fire: Philip Simmons, Blacksmith (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997).

Nina Simone (1935-) [jazz/soul singer, songwriter]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 61-63.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 58.

O. J. Simpson (1947-) [athlete/football]

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 38-41.

Naomi Sims (1949-) [fashion model, entrepreneur]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 28-33.

John Singleton (1968-) [screenwriter, film director]

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 28-33.

Robert Smalls (1839-1915) [Civil War marine hero, politician]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 73-74.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 25.

Michael L. Cooper, From Slave to Civil War Hero: The Life and Times of Robert Smalls (New York: Lodestar/Dutton, 1994).

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 117-128.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 40-42.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 35-38.

Catherine Reef, Black Fighting Men: A Proud History (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1994), 16-20.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 117-120.

Philip Sterling and Rayford Logan, Four Took Freedom: The Lives of Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, and Blanche K. Bruce, illus. Charles White (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1967), 67-95.

Ada "Bricktop" Smith (1894-1984) [entertainer, nightclub owner]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 93-96.

Bessie Smith (1894-1937) [blues and jazz singer]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 135-136.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 61.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 87-88.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 40-45.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 38.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 93-98.

Hettie Jones, Big Star Fallin' Mama: Five Women in Black Music, rev. ed (New York: Viking, 1995), 32-54.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 46.

Emmitt Smith (1969-) [athlete/football]

Matt Christopher, On the Field with . . . Emmitt Smith (Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1997).

John Grabowski, Sports Great Emmitt Smith (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1998).

Daniel Hirshberg, Emmitt Smith (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1996).

William W. Lace, Top Ten Football Rushers (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1994), 42-45.

Stew Thornley, Emmitt Smith: Relentless Rusher (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub., 1997).

Will Smith (1968-) [actor, rap singer]

Jan Berenson, Will Power! A Biography of Will Smith (New York: An Archway Paperback/Pocket Books, 1997).

K. S. Rodriguez, Will Smith: From Fresh Prince to King of Cool (New York: HarperActive/HarperCollins, 1998).

Stacey Stauffer, Will Smith (Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House Pub., 1999).

Dave Stern, Will Smith (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1999).

Charles C. Spaulding (1874-1952) [entrepreneur]

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 74-78.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 106-110.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 81-84.

Willie Stargell (1941-) [athlete/baseball]

Mike Shannon, Willie Stargell (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Sylvia Stark (1839-1944) [frontierswoman]

Victoria Scott and Ernest Jones, Sylvia Stark: A Pioneer, illus. Karen Lewis (Seattle, WA: Open Hand Pub., 1991).

John Steptoe (1950-1989) [children's book author and illustrator]

Julie Berg, John Steptoe (Minneapolis: Abdo & Daughters, 1994).

Deborah Kovacs and James Preller, Meet the Authors and Illustrators: 60 Creators of Favorite Children's Books Talk about Their Work, Vol. 1 (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1991), 60-61.

Susan McKinney Steward (1847-1918) [

William Grant Still (1894/1895-1978) [composer, conductor]

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 96-102.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 39.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 85-89.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 46-47.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 50-61.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 50-64.

Darryl Strawberry (1962-) [athlete/baseball]

John Albert Torres and Michael John Sullivan, Sports Great Darryl Strawberry (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1990).

Leon Sullivan (1922-) [religious leader and civil rights activist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 91.

Sheryl Swoopes (1971-) [athlete/basketball]

Liza N. Burby, Sheryl Swoopes: All-Star Basketball Player (New York: Rosen Pub., 1997).

Molly Jackel and Joe Layden, WNBA Superstars (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 46-53.

J. Kelly, Superstars of Women's Basketball (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997/1998), 40-49.

Sheryl Swoopes, with Greg Brown, Bounce Back, illus. Doug Keith (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub., 1996).

Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937) [artist]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 40-45.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 62-65.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 51.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 121-125.

Lawrence Taylor (1959-) [athlete/football]

Howard Liss, The Lawrence Taylor Story (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1987).

Jeff Savage, Top 10 Football Sackers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 34-37.

Marshall Taylor (1878-?) [athlete/cycling]

Mary Scioscia, Bicycle Rider, illus. Ed Young (New York: Harper & Row, 1983).

Mildred Taylor (1943-) [children's book author]

Deborah Kovacs and James Preller, Meet the Authors and Illustrators: 60 Creators of Favorite Children's Books Talk about Their Work, Vol. 1 (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1991), 132-133.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 58-60.

Susan Taylor (1946-) [journalist, editor, television host and producer]

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 58-60.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 72.

Susie King Taylor (1848-1912) [Civil War nurse]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 89.

Lewis Temple (1800-1854) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 54.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 32-45. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 30-43.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 23-25.

Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) [civil rights activist, feminist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 116-117.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 35.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 92-93.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 9.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Mary Church Terrell: Leader for Equality, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Dorothy Sterling and Benjamin Quarles, Lift Every Voice: The Lives of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary Church Terrell, and James Weldon Johnson, illus. Ernest Crichlow (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday & Co., 1965), 55-81.

Clarence Thomas (1948-) [Supreme Court Justice]

Warren J. Halliburton, Clarence Thomas: Supreme Court Justice (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1993).

Norman L. Macht, Clarence Thomas[: Supreme Court Justice] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1995).

Debi Thomas (1967-) [athlete/figure skating]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 40-45.

Frank Thomas (1968-) [athlete/baseball]

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 34-37.

Bill Deane, Top 10 Baseball Home Run Hitters (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 42-45.

Bill Gutman, Frank Thomas: Power Hitter (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1996).

Chris W. Sehnert, [Most Valuable Player:] Frank Thomas (Minneapolis, MN: Abdo & Daughters, 1996).

Isiah Thomas (1961-) [athlete/basketball]

Ron Knapp, Sports Great Isiah Thomas (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Ken Rappoport, Guts and Glory: Making It in the NBA (New York: Walker & Co., 1997), 94-107.

Bert Rosenthal, Isiah Thomas: Pocket Magic (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983).

Thurman Thomas (1966-) [athlete/football]

Jeff Savage, Thurman Thomas: Star Running Back (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1994).

Valerie L. Thomas (1943-) [inventor]

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 136-143.

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors III: Patricia Bath, Philip Emeagwali, Henry Sampson, Valerie Thomas, Peter Tolliver (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 28-33.

Peter Tolliver (1934-) [inventor]

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors III: Patricia Bath, Philip Emeagwali, Henry Sampson, Valerie Thomas, Peter Tolliver (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998), 34-41.

Gwen Torrence (1965-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 58-60.

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996), 126-129.

Jackie Torrence (1944-) [storyteller]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 58-60.

Bill Traylor (1856-1947/1948/1949) [artist]

Mary E. Lyons, Deep Blues: Bill Traylor, Self-Taught Artist (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994).

William Monroe Trotter (1872-1934) [editor, journalist, political activist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 45.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 95-96.

Sojourner Truth (ca.1797-1883) [orator, abolitionist, and feminist]

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Sojourner Truth, illus. Gershom Griffith (New York: Holiday House, 1994).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 69-70.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 17.

Arthur Huff Fauset, Sojourner Truth: God's Faithful Pilgrim (reprint: New York: Russell & Russell, 1971). [orig. University of North Carolina Press, 1938]

Jeri Ferris, Walking the Road to Freedom: A Story about Sojourner Truth, illus. Peter E. Hanson (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 96.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 55-57.

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 71-76.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 40.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 6.

Peter Krass, Sojourner Truth[: Antislavery Activist] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick McKissack, Sojourner Truth: Ain't I a Woman? (New York: Scholastic, 1992).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Sojourner Truth: A Voice for Freedom, illus. Michael Bryant (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Margo McLoone, Sojourner Truth: A Photo-Illustrated Biography (1997)

Victoria Ortiz, Sojourner Truth: A Self-Made Woman (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1974).

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 108-117.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 40-46.

Jane Shumate, Sojourner Truth and the Voice of Freedom (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Susan Taylor-Boyd, Sojourner Truth: The Courageous Former Slave Whose Eloquence Helped Promote Human Equality (Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Children's Books, 1990).

W. Terry Whalin, Sojourner Truth: American Abolitionist (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub., 1999). [orig. pub. by Barbour Pub, 1997]

Harriet Tubman (1920/1921-1913) [conductor on the Underground Railroad; nurse, scout and spy during the Civil War; abolitionist and feminist]

David A. Adler, A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman, illus. Samuel Byrd (New York: Holiday House, 1992).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 59-60.

Rae Bains, Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom, illus. Larry Johnson (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1982).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 22.

Anne Benjamin, Young Harriet Tubman: Freedom Fighter, illus. Ellen Beier (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates/A Troll First-Start Biography, 1992).

Henrietta Buckmaster, Women Who Shaped History (New York: Collier Books, 1966), 99-121.

Bree Burns, Harriet Tubman (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1992).

Judy Carlson, Harriet Tubman: Call to Freedom (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1989).

Polly Carter, Harriet Tubman and Black History Month, illus. Brian Pinkney (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Press, 1990).

Alice Childress, When the Rattlesnake Sounds, illus. Charles Lilly (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1975).

Dan Elish, Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

Jeri Ferris, Go Free or Die: A Story about Harriet Tubman, illus. Karen Ritz (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 97.

Matthew G. Grant, Harriet Tubman: Black Liberator, illus. John Keely and Dick Brude (Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1974).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 34-39.

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 88-91.

Robert Hogrogian, Harriet Tubman, illus. John Courtney (Hawthorne, NJ: January Productions, 1979).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 41.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 34-42.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 101-116.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 7.

Lee Kinard, Harriet Tubman's Famous Christmas Eve Raid, illus. Daryl Shon Anderson (Nashville, TN: James C. Winston Pub. Co., 1995).

Jacob Lawrence, Harriet and the Promised Land (New York: Windmill Books/Simon & Schuster, 1968).

Suzanne Levert, The Doubleday Book of Famous Americans (New York: Doubleday, 1989), 279-281.

Megan McClard, Harriet Tubman: Slavery and the Underground Railroad (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press/Simon & Schuster, 1991).

Ann McGovern, "Wanted Dead or Alive": The True Story of Harriet Tubman, illus. R. M. Powers (New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1965). [Original title: Runaway Slave]

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996), 130-143.

Kate McMullen, The Story of Harriet Tubman: Conductor of the Underground Railroad, illus. Steven James Petruccio (New York: Dell/Yearling, 1991).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 30-31.

Linda D. Meyer, Harriet Tubman: They Called Me Moses, illus. J. Kerstetter (Seattle, WA: Parenting Press, Inc., 1988).

Kiki Mosher, Learning about Bravery from the Life of Harriet Tubman (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1996).

Pam Nelson, Mari Florence, Naomi Wax, Cool Women[: The Thinking Girl's Guide to the Hippest Women in History], ed. Pam Nelson, designed by Amy Inouye (Chicago, IL: Girl Press, 1998), 90-91.

Anne Parrish, A Clouded Star (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948).

Ann Petry, Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1955). Also: Ann Petry, Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad (Lakeville, CT: Grey Castle Press, 1955).

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 120-127.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 14-15.

Dolores Ready, Harriet Finds a Way: A Story about Harriet Tubman, illus. Rick Cooley (Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1978).

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 47-53.

Faith Ringgold, Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky (New York: Crown Pub., 1992).

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 126-131.

John Rowley, Harriet Tubman (Des Plaines, IL: Heinemann Interactive Library, 1998).

Jessie Hailstalk Roy and Geneva Calcier Turner, "The Wonderful Conductor," in Pioneers of Long Ago, illus. Lois Mailou Jones (Washington, DC: The Associated Publishers, 1951), 179-92.

Francene Sabin, Harriet Tubman, illus. Hal Frenck (Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985).

Alan Schroeder, Minty: A Story of Young Harriet Tubman, illus. Jerry Pinkney (New York: Dial Books for Young Readers, 1996).

Kathie Billingslea Smith, Harriet Tubman, illus. James Seward (New York: Julian Messner/Silver Burdett Press, 1988). [Cover illus. by Joseph Forte]

Dorothy Sterling, Freedom Train: The Story of Harriet Tubman, illus. Ernest Crichlow (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1954). Also: Dorothy Sterling, Freedom Train: The Story of Harriet Tubman (New York: Scholastic Press, 1954).

Philip Sterling and Rayford Logan, Four Took Freedom: The Lives of Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, and Blanche K. Bruce, illus. Charles White (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1967), 1-31.

Hildegarde Hoyt Swift, The Railroad to Freedom: A Story of the Civil War, illus. James Daugherty (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1932).

M. W. Taylor, Harriet Tubman: Antislavery Activist (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

Flossie E. Thompson-Peters, Harriet Tubman: Freedom Fighter, illus. Lillian M. Wilson (Los Angeles, CA: Atlas Press, 1988).

Don Troy, Harriet Ross Tubman [1920-1913] (Chanhassen, MN: The Child's World, 1999).

Charles Henry Turner (1867-1923) [scientist]

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 58-60.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 68-91.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 73-77.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 45.

Henry McNeal Turner (1834-1915) [religious leader, orator, educator]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 23.

Nat Turner (1800-1831) [slave revolt leader]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 41-42.

Tracy Barrett, Nat Turner and the Slave Revolt (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 18.

Terry Bisson, Nat Turner[: Slave Revolt Leader] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 97-98.

Judith Berry Griffin, Nat Turner, illus. Leo Carty (New York: Coward-McCann, 1970).

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 59-63.

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996), 99-111.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 132-137.

Tina Turner (1939-) [singer]

Gene Busnar, The Picture Life of Tina Turner (New York: Franklin Watts, 1987).

Judy L. Hasday, Tina Turner (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1999). [Black Americans of Achievement series, ed. Nathan Irvin Huggins] [intro. by Coretta Scott King] [photographs]

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 164-166.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 61-63.

Cicely Tyson (1938?/1942-) [actor]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 59.

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 34-39.

Wyomia Tyus (1945-) [athlete/track and field]

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 61-63.

Leslie Uggams (1943-) [singer, actor]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 42.

James Van Der Zee (1886-1983) [photographer]

Jim Haskins, James Van DerZee: The Picture Takin' Man (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1979).

Sarah Vaughan (1924-1990) [jazz singer]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 55.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 34-39.

Denmark Vesey (1767-1822) [slave revolt leader]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 35-36.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 100-01.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 43.

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996), 71-83.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 23-24.

Alice Walker (1944-) [author]

Virginia Aronson, Female Firsts in Their Field: Literature (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1999), 52-61.

Edwina Conner, Twenty Names in Modern Literature, illus. Chris Rothero (New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1988), 42-43.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 24-25.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 44.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 40-45.

David Walker (1785-1830) [abolitionist pamphleteer]

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 19-22.

Herschel Walker (1962-) [athlete/football]

Jim Benagh, Sports Great Herschel Walker (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1990).

Madam [Sarah Breedlove] C. J. Walker (1867-1919) [inventor, entrepreneur]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 108-109.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 38.

A'Lelia Perry Bundles, Madam C. J. Walker: Entrepreneur (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1991).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 102-03.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 63-68.

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 14-25.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 58-62.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 70.

Laura S. Jeffrey, Great American Businesswomen (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 16-25.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Madam C. J. Walker: Self-Made Millionaire, illus. Michael Bryant (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1992). [Great African Americans, series consultant Dr. Russell L. Adams] [drawings and photographs]

Pam Nelson, Mari Florence, Naomi Wax, Cool Women[: The Thinking Girl's Guide to the Hippest Women in History], ed. Pam Nelson, designed by Amy Inouye (Chicago, IL: Girl Press, 1998), 94-95.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 36.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 34-39.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 47-53.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 70-74.

Ethlie Ann Vare and Greg Ptacek, Women Inventors and Their Discoveries (Minneapolis: The Oliver Press, 1993), 50-65.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 44-45.

Maggie Lena Walker (1867-1934) [banker, civil rights activist]

Muriel Miller Branch and Dorothy Marie Rice, Pennies to Dollars: The Story of Maggie Lena Walker (North Haven, CT: Linnet Book/Shoe String Press, 1997). Revised version of Muriel Branch and Dorothy Marie Rice, Miss Maggie: A Biography of Maggie Lena Walker (Richmond, VA: Marlborough House Pub. Co., 1984).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 104.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 69-73.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 71.

Laura S. Jeffrey, Great American Businesswomen (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 8-15.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 61-63.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 130-135.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 138-140.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 161-169.

Margaret Walker (1915-) [author, scholar]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 38.

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 80-86.

Fats Waller [jazz musician and singer]

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 23-37.

Meta Vaux Warrick [sculptor]

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 235-249.

Booker T. Washington (1856/1858?-1915) [educator, influential spokesman]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 87-88.

Thomas Amper, Booker T. Washington, illus. Jeni Reeves (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books/Lerner, 1998).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 31.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 104-05.

Jan Gleiter and Kathleen Thompson, Booker T. Washington, illus. Rick Whipple (Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Childrens Books, 1988).

Shirley Graham, Booker T. Washington: Educator of Hand, Head, and Heart (New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1955).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 58-60.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 44.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 44-53.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Booker T. Washington: Leader and Educator, illus. Michael Bryant (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1992).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, The Story of Booker T. Washington (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1991).

Lois P. Nicholson, Booker T. Washington[: A Modern Moses] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1997).

Lillie Patterson, Booker T. Washington: Leader of His People, illus. Anthony D'Adamo (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1991).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 25.

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 54-60.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 141-142.

Alan Schroeder, Booker T. Washington: Educator and Racial Spokesman (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1992).

Dorothy Sterling and Benjamin Quarles, Lift Every Voice: The Lives of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary Church Terrell, and James Weldon Johnson, illus. Ernest Crichlow (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday & Co., 1965), 1-26.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 65-76.

Denzel Washington (1954-) [actor]

Chris Nickson, Denzel Washington (New York: St. Martin's Paperbacks, 1996). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 40-45.

Alex Simmons, Denzel Washington[: Oscar-Winning Actor, Humanitarian] (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1997).

Harold Washington (1922-1987) [politician]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 105-06.

Naurice Roberts, Harold Washington: Mayor with a Vision (Chicago: Childrens Press, [1988]).

Madison Washington [slave insurrectionist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 48-49.

Ethel Waters (1896?/1900?-1977) [singer]

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 45.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 111-114.

Faye Wattleton (1943-) [activist/women's reproductive health and rights]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 94.

J. C. Watts [Julius Caesar] (1957-) [athlete/football, politician]

Sarah De Capua, J. C. Watts Jr.: Character Counts (New York: Childrens Press, 1998).

Spud Webb (1963-) [athlete/basketball]

Peter C. Bjarkman, Top Ten Basketball Slam Dunkers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1995), 42-45.

Chris Webber (1973-) [athlete/basketball]

Ron Knapp, Chris Webber: Star Forward (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1997).

David Moore, Dynamic Duos (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 18-25.

Jeff Savage, Top Ten Basketball Power Forwards (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 42-45.

Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931) [journalist, civil rights activist, feminist]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 113-115.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 34.

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998), 63-90.

Suzanne Freedman, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and the Antilynching Crusade (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 107-08.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 61-63.

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 6-7.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 46.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 153-162.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 10.

Steve Klots, Ida Wells-Barnett: Civil Rights Leader (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1994).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Ida B. Wells-Barnett: A Voice against Violence, illus. Ned O. (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Pub., Inc., 1991).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993), 46-49.

Angela Shelf Medearis, Princess of the Press: The Story of Ida B. Wells-Barnett (New York: Lodestar Books/Dutton, 1997).

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 195-215.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 61-64.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 138-141.

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994), 54-60.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 24-26.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 115-127.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 45.

Phillis Wheatley (ca.1753-1784) [poet]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 18-19.

Virginia Aronson, Female Firsts in Their Field: Literature (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1999), 10-17.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 11.

Lavinia Dobler and Edgar A. Toppin, Pioneers and Patriots: The Lives of Six Negroes of the Revolutionary Era, illus. Colleen Browning (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1965), 30-50.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 109-10.

Shirley Graham, The Story of Phillis Wheatley, illus. Robert Burns (New York: Julian Messner, 1949).

Carol Greene, Phillis Wheatley: First African-American Poet [illus. Steven Gaston Dobson] (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995).

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 30-32.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 47.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 2-8.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 33.

Daniel C. Littlefield, Revolutionary Citizens: African Americans, 1776-1804 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 12-18.

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 1-11.

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 144-149.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 5.

Merle Richmond, Phillis Wheatley[: Poet] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1988).

Ann Rinaldi, Hang a Thousand Trees with Ribbons: The Story of Phillis Wheatley (San Diego, CA: Gulliver Books/Harcourt Brace & Co., 1996).

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965), 18-21.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 143-145.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 68-77.

Maryann N. Weidt, Revolutionary Poet: A Story about Phillis Wheatley, illus. Mary O'Keefe Young (Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1997).

Charles White (1918-1979) [artist]

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 58-68.

Reggie White (1961-) [athlete/football]

Bill Gutman, Reggie White: Star Defensive Lineman (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1994).

Jeff Savage, Top 10 Football Sackers (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997), 38-41.

Walter White (1893-1955) [civil rights activist, author]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 59.

Jane Fraser, Walter White: Civil Rights Leader (New York: Chelsea House, 1991).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 110-11.

Robert E. Jakoubek, Walter White and the Power of Organized Protest (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 54-60.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945), 207-213.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 226-235.

L. Douglas Wilder (1931-) [politician]

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 40-45.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 96-97.

Roy Wilkins (1901-1981) [leading civil rights activist]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 69.

Bert Williams (1873/1875?/1876?-1922) [entertainer]

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 21-28.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), 37-43.

Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, Black Magic: A Pictorial History of the Negro in American Entertainment (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967), 54-60.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 33.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 146-149.

Daniel Hale Williams (1856/1858?-1931) [physician]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 106-107.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 32.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 176-200.

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 40-45.

Robert C. Hayden, Eleven African American Doctors [illus. Richard Loehle] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992), 186-203.

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970), 26-43.

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954), 56-60.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 42-46.

Lillie Patterson, Sure Hands, Strong Heart: The Life of Daniel Hale Williams, illus. David Scott Brown (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1981).

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 69-72.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 28-29.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 150-152.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 4-12.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 49-54.

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968), 110-120.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 44.

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 1-13.

George Washington Williams (1849-1891) [military, historian, politician]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 99-101.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 28.

Mary Lou Williams (1910-1981) [jazz composer, musician]

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 49.

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998), 38-46.

Paul R. Williams (1894-1980) [architect]

Karen E. Hudson, The Will and the Way: Paul R. Williams, Architect (New York: Rizzoli, 1994).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 40.

Vanessa Williams (1963-) [first black Miss America]

Sue Boulais, Vanessa Williams (Childs, MD: Mitchell Lane Publishers, 1999).

Venus Williams (1980-) [athlete/tennis]

Virginia Aronson, Venus Williams (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub., 1999).

August Wilson (1945? 1946-) [playwright]

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997), 61-63.

Oprah Winfrey (1954-) [entertainer, actor]

Margaret Beaton, Oprah Winfrey: TV Talk Show Host (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990).

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 147-150.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 75.

Laura S. Jeffrey, Great American Businesswomen (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1996), 82-91.

Lois P. Nicholson, Oprah Winfrey[: Talking with America] (New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1997).

Steve Otfinoski, Oprah Winfrey: Television Star (Woodbridge, CT: Blackbirch Press, 1993).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 83.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 40-45.

Geraldine Woods, The Oprah Winfrey Story: Speaking Her Mind (Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1991).

Stevie Wonder (1950-) [singer, songwriter]

Sam Hasegawa, Stevie Wonder, illus. Dick Brude, design concept by Mark Landkamer (Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1975).

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 163-164.

James Haskins, The Story of Stevie Wonder (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co./William Morrow, 1976).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 40-45.

John Swenson, Stevie Wonder (New York: Perennial/Harper & Row, 1986).

Lynette Woodard (1959-) [athlete/basketball]

Molly Jackel and Joe Layden, WNBA Superstars (New York: Scholastic, 1998), 62-69.

Bert Rosenthal, Lynette Woodard: The First Female Globetrotter (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1986).

Granville T. Woods (1856-1910) [inventor]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 104-105.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 33.

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 60-70.

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 57-60.

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991), 47-49.

Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors [rev. ed.] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt & Co., 1992), 122-135. Also in: Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972), 120-134.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 70-75.

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970), 57-60.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 55-59.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 43-44.

Tiger Woods (1975-) [athlete/golf]

Aaron Boyd, Tiger Woods (Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 1997).

Nicholas Edwards, Tiger Woods: An American Master (New York: Scholastic, 1997).

Sports Illustrated and John Garrity, Tiger Woods: The Making of a Champion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996). [Sports Illustrated Golf Plus series] [photographs]

Bill Gutman, Tiger Woods: A Biography (New York: Archway Paperback/Pocket Books, 1992).

Bill Gutman, Tiger Woods: Golf's Shining Young Star (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Sports World/Millbrook Press, 1998).

S. A. Kramer, Tiger Woods: Golfing to Greatness (New York: Random House, 1997).

Jeff Savage, Tiger Woods: King of the Course (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1998).

John Strege, Tiger: A Biography of Tiger Woods (New York: Broadway Books, 1997).

Allison L. Teague, Prince of the Fairway: The Tiger Woods Story (Greensboro, NC: Avisson Press, 1997).

Carter G. Woodson (1875-1950) [educator, historian]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 50.

Tonya Bolden, Through Loona's Door: A Tammy and Owen Adventure with Carter G. Woodson, illus. Luther Knox (Oakland, CA: Corporation for Cultural Literacy, 1997).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 112-13.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 50-52.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 41.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 153-156.

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965), 88-95.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 3-22.

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996), 46.

Jane Cooke Wright (1919-) [surgeon, scientist]

Robert C. Hayden, Eleven African American Doctors [illus. Richard Loehle] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992), 124-137.

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991), 91.

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), 113-118.

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991), 67-79.

Louis Tompkins Wright (1891-1952) [surgeon, scientist]

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 201-218.

Robert C. Hayden, Eleven African American Doctors [illus. Richard Loehle] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992), 52-71.

Nathan Wright, Jr. (1923-) [civil rights/revolutionary activist]

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 93-101.

Richard Wright (1908-1960) [author]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 150-152.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 76.

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 114.

William Miller, Richard Wright and the Library Card, illus. Gregory Christie (New York: Lee & Low Books, 1997).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994), 66-78.

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 61-63.

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, rev. William A. Fahey, illus. Robert Hallock (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1956), 125-136.

Joan Urban, Richard Wright[: Author] (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1989).

Richard Wright, "Apprentice," in Young and Black in America, ed. Rae Pace Alexander (New York: Random House, 1970), 17-36.

Malcolm X (1925-1965) [religious and revolutionary leader]

Arnold Adoff, Malcolm X, illus. John Wilson (reprint: New York: HarperCollins, 1970). Originally: Arnold Adoff, Malcolm X, illus. John Wilson (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1970).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 197-199.

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 94.

Kevin Brown, Malcolm X: His Life and Legacy (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993).

David R. Collins, Black Rage: Malcolm X (New York: Dillon Press/Macmillan, 1992).

Robert Cwiklik, Malcolm X and Black Pride (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991).

Mark Davies, Malcolm X: Another Side of the Movement (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1990).

Lucile Davis, Malcolm X: A Photo-Illustrated Biography (Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books/Capstone Press, 1998).

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 72-73.

Nikki Grimes, Malcolm X: A Force for Change (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1992).

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992), 164-181.

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 103-122.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 48.

Walter Dean Myers, Malcolm X: By Any Means Necessary (New York: Scholastic, 1993).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996), 40-45.

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993), 26-32.

Jack Rummel, Malcolm X[: Militant Black Leader] (New York: Chelsea House, 1989).

Malcolm X, Malcolm X Talks to Young People: Speeches in the U.S., Britain, and Africa (New York: Pathfinder, 1965, 1970, 1991).

Malcolm X, "Turning Point," in Young and Black in America, ed. Rae Pace Alexander (New York: Random House, 1970), 57-68.

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997), 159-174.

York (1770-1831?/1832) [explorer, scout, interpreter]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 33-34.

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993), 38-40.

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992), 24-30.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 14-17.

A. E. Schraff, Black Courage, illus. Len Ebert (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1969), 32-36.

Elizabeth Van Steenwyk, My Name Is York, illus. Bill Farnsworth (Flagstaff, AZ: Rising Moon/Books for Young Readers from Northland Pub., 1997).

Andrew Young (1932-) [politician]

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 115.

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997), 95.

Naurice Roberts, Andrew Young: Freedom Fighter (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983/1990).

Paul Westman, Andrew Young: Champion of the Poor (Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1983).

Charles Young (1864-1922) [military]

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989), 110-111.

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958), 129-137.

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977), 161-162.

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964), 157-159.

Whitney M. Young, Jr. (1920-1978) [leading civil rights activist, educator]

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995), 90.

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997), 49.

Groups, Time Periods, and Collected Biographies

General

Rae Pace Alexander, ed., Young and Black in America (New York: Random House, 1970).

Susan Altman, The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage (New York: Facts on File, 1997).

Susan Altman, Extraordinary Black Americans from Colonial to Contemporary Times (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989).

Susan Altman and Susan Lechner, Followers of the North Star: Rhymes about African American Heroes, Heroines and Historical Times, illus. Byron Wooden (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993).

John Becker, The Negro in American Life (New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1944).

Chrisanne Beckner, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped American History, illus. Tony Chikes [cover illus. Vadim Vahrameev] (San Mateo, CA: Bluewood Books, 1995).

Tonya Bolden, And Not Afraid to Dare: The Stories of Ten African-American Women (New York: Scholastic Press, 1998).

Arna Bontemps, Story of the Negro, illus. Raymond Lufkin (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948).

Julia Alford Davis, African American History for Young Readers (A Chronological Account) (Yellow Springs, OH: Epps-Alford Pub., 1991).

Karen Dudley, Great African Americans in Government (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997).

Tom Feelings, Tommy Traveller in the World of Black History (New York: Black Butterfly Children's Books, 1991).

Silas X. Floyd, Floyd's Flowers, Or Duty and Beauty for Colored Children: Being One Hundred Short Stories Gleaned from the Storehouse of Human Knowledge and Experience, illus. John Henry Adams (Atlanta: Hertel, Jenkins & Co., 1905). [Reprint: New York: AMS Press, 1975].

David M. P. Freund and Marya Annette McQuirter, Biographical Supplement and Index (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Robert Goldston, The Negro Revolution (New York: Macmillan, 1968).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in History (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997).

Virginia Hamilton, Her Stories: African American Folktales, Fairy Tales, and True Tales, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: The Blue Sky/Scholastic, 1995).

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993).

Sibyl Hancock, Famous Firsts of Black Americans, illus. Shelton Miles (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993).

Joyce Hansen, Women of Hope: African Americans Who Made a Difference (New York: Scholastic, 1998).

Joyce Hansen and Gary McGowan, Breaking Ground, Breaking Silence: The Story of New York's African Burial Ground (New York: Henry Holt, 1998).

Jim Haskins, One More River to Cross: The Stories of Twelve Black Americans (New York: Scholastic, 1992).

Laurel Holliday, Children of the Dream: Our Own Stories of Growing Up Black in America (New York: Pocket Books, 1999).

Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley, Afro-Bets: Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers (East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1988/1997).

Langston Hughes, Famous American Negroes (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1954).

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Heroes of America, illus. Gerald McCann (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1958).

Langston Hughes, The First Book of Negroes, illus. Ursula Koering (New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1952).

Langston Hughes, The First Book of the West Indies, illus. Robert Bruce (New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1956).

Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, Black Magic: A Pictorial History of the Negro in American Entertainment (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967).

Langston Hughes, Milton Meltzer, and C. Eric Lincoln, A Pictorial History of Black Americans, 5th ed. (New York: Crown, 1983).

Toyomi Igus, with Veronica Freeman Ellis, Diane Patrick, and Valerie Wilson Wesley, eds., Book of Black Heroes: Great Women in the Struggle: An Introduction for Young Readers (Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1991).

Florence Jackson, The Black Man in America, 1905-1932 (New York: Franklin Watts, 1974).

Geoffrey Jacques, The African-American Movement Today (New York: Franklin Watts, 1992).

Dianne Johnson-Feelings, ed., The Best of The Brownies' Book (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Rachel Kranz and Philip J. Koslow, The Biographical Dictionary of African Americans (New York: Facts on File, 1999).

Roland Owen Laird, Jr., with Taneshia Nash Laird, Still I Rise: A Cartoon History of African Americans, illus. Elihu "Adofo" Bey (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997).

George L. Lee, Interesting People: Black American History Makers, illus. George L. Lee (New York: Ballantine Books, 1989/1992).

Julius Lester, Long Journey Home: Stories from Black History (New York: Dial Press, 1972).

Angela Shelf Medearis, Come This Far to Freedom: A History of African Americans, illus. Terea D. Shaffer (New York: Atheneum, 1993).

Milton Meltzer, All Times, All People: A World History of Slavery, illus. Leonard Everett Fisher (New York: Harper & Row, 1980).

Milton Meltzer, ed., The Black Americans: A History in Their Own Words, 1619-1983 (New York: HarperTrophy, 1984).

Milton Meltzer and August Meier, Time of Trial, Time of Hope: The Negro in America, 1919-1941, illus. Moneta Barnett (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1966).

Sister A. Maryam Muhammed, Our Roots Run Deep (Sister Maryam Productions, 1993).

Walter Dean Myers, Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom (New York: HarperCollins, 1991).

Diane Patrick, The New York Public Library Amazing African American History: A Book of Answers for Kids (New York: A Stonesong Press Book/John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

Margaret Peters, The Ebony Book of Black Achievement, illus. and designed by Cecil L. Ferguson (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1970).

Martha Ward Plowden, Famous Firsts of Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1993).

Joan Potter and Constance Claytor, African Americans Who Were First (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1997).

R. Kent Rasmussen, Farewell to Jim Crow: The Rise and Fall of Segregation in America (New York: Facts on File, 1997).

Richard Rennert, ed., Female Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1994).

Richard Rennert, ed., Shapers of America (New York: Chelsea House, 1993).

Ben Richardson, Great American Negroes, illus. Louise Costello (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945).

Wilhelmena S. Robinson, Historical Negro Biographies (New York: Publishers Co./The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1967).

Charlemae Rollins, They Showed the Way: Forty American Negro Leaders (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1964).

Jessie Hailstalk Roy and Geneva Calcier Turner, Pioneers of Long Ago, illus. Lois Mailou Jones (Washington, DC: The Associated Publishers, 1951). [Introduction by C. G. Woodson]

Jane Dabney Shackelford, The Child's Story of the Negro, illus. Lois Mailou Jones [rev. ed.] (Washington, DC: The Associated Publishers, 1956). [orig. 1938]

Ellen Shnidman, The African-American Answer Book (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1999).

Howard Smead, The Afro-Americans (New York: Chelsea House, 1989).

James Steele, Freedom's River: The African-American Contribution to Democracy (New York: Franklin Watts, 1994).

Dorothy Sterling, Black Foremothers: Three Lives, illus. Judith Eloise Hooper (Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press/McGraw-Hill, 1979).

Madeline Robinson Stratton, Negroes Who Helped Build America [illus. Don Sibley] (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1965).

Tuesday Magazine, Black Heroes in World History (New York: Bantam Books, 1966, 1967, 1968).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Follow in Their Footsteps: Biographies of Ten Outstanding African Americans (New York: Puffin, 1997).

Glennette Tilley Turner, Take a Walk in Their Shoes, illus. Elton C. Fax (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989).

Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's African American Heritage, 2nd ed. (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Pub., 1996).

Anna Wilson, Discrimination: African Americans Struggle for Equality (Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Co., 1992).

Carter G. Woodson, Negro Makers of History (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1928).

Carter G. Woodson The Story of the Negro Retold (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1935).

Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, Negro Makers of History, 6th ed. (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1968). [orig. 1928] [also 1938, 1942 and 1958] [originally single authored]

Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, The Story of the Negro Retold, 4th ed. (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1959). [orig. 1935] [also 1942 and 1945] [single authored until the 4th ed.]

Africa, the Middle Passage, and Slavery

Raymond Bial, The Strength of These Arms: Life in the Slave Quarters (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1997).

Elisa Carbone, Stealing Freedom (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998). [about Ann Marie Weems]

Veronica Chambers, Amistad Rising: A Story of Freedom, illus. Paul Lee (San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1998).

Meg Greene, Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub., 1999).

Virginia Hamilton, Many Thousands Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, illus. Leo and Diane Dillon (New York: Knopf, 1993).

James Haskins and Kathleen Benson, African Beginnings, illus. Floyd Cooper (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard/Morrow, 1998).

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 1-11.

James Haskins and Kathleen Benson, Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World, illus. Floyd Cooper (New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard/Morrow, 1999).

Belinda Hurmence, Slavery Time: When I Was Chillun (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1997).

Earnestine Jenkins, A Glorious Past: Ancient Egypt, Ethiopia, and Nubia (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

Dolores Johnson, Now Let Me Fly: The Story of a Slave Family, illus. Dolores Johnson (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1993).

Philip Koslow, Centuries of Greatness, 750-1900: The West African Kingdoms (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

Julius Lester, From Slave Ship to Freedom Road, illus. Rod Brown (New York: Dial Books, 1998).

Julius Lester, To Be a Slave, illus. Tom Feelings (New York: Dial Books for Young Readers, 1968).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 28-40.

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick L. McKissack, Rebels against Slavery: American Slave Revolts (New York: Scholastic Press, 1996).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa (New York: Henry Holt, 1994).

Walter Dean Myers, Amistad: A Long Road to Freedom (New York: Dutton Children's Books, 1998).

Doreen Rappaport, Escape from Slavery: Five Journeys to Freedom, illus. Charles Lilly (New York: HarperTrophy, 1991).

Michele Stepto, ed., Our Song, Our Toil: The Story of American Slavery as Told by Slaves (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Velma Maia Thomas, Lest We Forget: The Passage from Africa to Slavery and Emancipation [A Three-Dimensional Interactive Book with Photographs and Documents from the Black Holocaust Exhibit] (New York: Crown Pub., 1997).

Deborah Gray White, Let My People Go: African Americans, 1804-1860 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Arvella Whitmore, Trapped between the Lash and the Gun: A Boy's Journey (New York: Dial Books, 1999).

Mary Young, "All My Trials, Lord": Selections from Women's Slave Narratives (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995).

Mary Young and Gerald Horne, Testaments of Courage: Selections from Men's Slave Narratives (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995).

Karen Zeinert, The Amistad Slave Revolt and American Abolition (North Haven, CT: Linnet Books, 1997).

Abolitionism and Post-Reconstruction Black Civil Rights Movements

Pierre Hauser, Great Ambitions, 1896-1909: From the "Separate but Equal" Doctrine to the Birth of the NAACP (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

William Loren Katz, The Westward Movement and Abolitionism, 1815-1850 (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1993).

Michael Weber, Causes and Consequences of the African American Civil Rights Movement (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1998).

Deborah Gray White, Let My People Go: African Americans, 1804-1860 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Arts and Entertainment

Sherry Ayazi-Hashjin, Rap and Hip Hop: The Voice of a Generation (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1999).

Bob Brunning, Reggae (Lincolnwood, IL: Peter Bedrick Books, 1999). [Orig. David West Children's Books, 1998]

Ron David, Jazz for Beginners, illus. Vanessa Holley (New York: Writers and Readers, 1995).

Howard Elmer, Blues: Its Birth and Growth (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1999).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in Jazz (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997).

Carlotta Hacker, Great African Americans in the Arts (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997).

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990).

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987).

Langston Hughes, Famous Negro Music Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955).

Langston Hughes, The First Book of Jazz, illus. Cliff Roberts (Hopewell, NJ: The Ecco Press, 1995). [Orig. 1955]

Hettie Jones, Big Star Fallin' Mama: Five Women in Black Music, rev. ed (New York: Viking, 1995).

Anne E. Johnson, Jazz Tap: From African Drums to American Feet (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1999).

Jeanne Lee, Jam! The Story of Jazz Music (New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1999).

Thomas L. Morgan and William Barlow, From Cakewalks to Concert Hall: An Illustrated History of African American Popular Music from 1895 to 1930 (Washington, DC: Elliott & Clark Pub., 1992).

Stanley I. Mour, American Jazz Musicians (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1998).

Albert Murray, Stomping the Blues (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976).

Steven Otfinoski, Great Black Writers (New York: Facts on File, 1994).

Janice Parker, Great African Americans in Film (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997).

Lindsay Patterson, ed., The Negro in Music and Art (New York: Publishers Co./The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1967).

Burton W. Peretti, Jazz in American Culture (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1997).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Entertainment (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Literature (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Music (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996).

Charlemae Rollins, Famous American Negro Poets (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965).

Charlemae Rollins, Famous Negro Entertainers of Stage, Screen, and TV (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967).

Gene Seymour, Jazz: The Great American Art (New York: Franklin Watts/Grolier, 1995).

George Sullivan, Black Artists in Photography, 1840-1940 (New York: Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1996).

Giuseppe Vigna, Jazz and Its History, illus. by Studio Boni-Pieri-Critone (New York: Barron's, 1999). [Translated from the Italian; orig. 1998]

Bennett Wayne, ed., Three Jazz Greats (Champaign, IL: Garrard Pub. Co., 1973).

Michele Wood, I See the Rhythm, text by Toyomi Igus (San Francisco, CA: Children's Book Press, 1998).

Astronauts and Pilots

Khephra Burns and William Miles, Black Stars in Orbit: NASA's African American Astronauts (San Diego: Gulliver Books/Harcourt Brace & Co., 1995).

Jacqueline L. Harris, The Tuskegee Airmen: Black Heroes of World War II (Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1996).

Philip S. Hart, Flying Free: America's First Black Aviators (Minneapolis: Lerner Pub., 1992).

Jim Haskins, Black Eagles: African Americans in Aviation (New York: Scholastic, 1995).

Ann Chandler Howell, Tuskegee Airmen: Heroes in Flight for Dignity, Inclusion, and Citizenship Rights, illus. Greg Johannes (Chicago: Chandler/White Pub. Co., 1994).

Dr. Stanley P. Jones, African-American Aviators: James Herman Banning, Bessie Coleman, General Daniel "Chappie" James Jr., Benjamin O. Davis Jr., William J. Powell (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998).

Dr. Stanley P. Jones and L. Octavia Tripp, African-American Astronauts: Guion S. Bluford Jr., Charles F. Bolden Jr., Frederick D. Gregory, Bernard A. Harris Jr., Mae C. Jemison (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Red-Tail Angels: The Story of the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II (New York: Walker & Co., 1995).

Before the Civil War

William Loren Katz, The Westward Movement and Abolitionism, 1815-1850 (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1993).

Timothy J. Paulson, Days of Sorrow, Years of Glory, 1831-1850: From the Nat Turner Revolt to the Fugitive Slave Law (New York: Chelsea House, 1994).

Black Civil Rights Movement of the Fifties and Sixties

Zita Allen, Black Women Leaders of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Franklin Watts, 1996).

Jules Archer, They Had a Dream: The Civil Rights Struggle from Frederick Douglass to Marcus Garvey to Martin Luther King to Malcolm X (New York: Viking, 1993).

Sean Dolan, Pursuing the Dream, 1965-1971: From the Selma-Montgomery March to the Formation of PUSH (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

James Haskins, Freedom Rides: Journey for Justice (New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1995).

James Haskins, The March on Washington (New York: HarperCollins, 1993).

Casey King and Linda Barrett Osborne, Oh, Freedom! Kids Talk about the Civil Rights Movement with the People Who Made It Happen (New York: Borzoi/Alfred A. Knopf, 1997).

Anna Kosof, The Civil Rights Movement and Its Legacy (New York: Franklin Watts, 1989).

Ellen Levine, Freedom's Children: Young Civil Rights Activists Tell Their Own Stories (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1993).

William Miller, The Bus Ride, illus. John Ward, intro. Rosa Parks (New York: Lee & Low Books, 1998).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Civil Rights (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996).

Richard Rennert, ed., Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Chelsea House, 1993).

Belinda Rochelle, Witnesses to Freedom: Young People Who Fought for Civil Rights (New York: Puffin, 1993/1997).

John A. Salmond, "My Mind Set on Freedom": A History of the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1968 (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1997).

Jordana Y. Shakoor, Civil Rights Childhood (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1999).

Leon Walter Tillage, Leon's Story, illus. Susan L. Roth (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1997).

Michael Weber, Causes and Consequences of the African American Civil Rights Movement (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1998).

Robert Weisbrot, Marching toward Freedom, 1957-1965: From the Founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to the Assassination of Malcolm X (New York: Chelsea House, 1994).

Black Panthers and Black Revolutionary Movements of the Sixties and Seventies

Herb Boyd, Black Panthers for Beginners, illus. Lance Tooks (New York: Writers and Readers Pub., 1995).

Jim Haskins, Power to the People: The Rise and Fall of the Black Panther Party (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1997).

James Haskins, Profiles in Black Power (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1972).

Business

Jim Haskins, African American Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Business (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996).

Civil War Era

Noralee Frankel, Break Those Chains at Last: African Americans, 1860-1880 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Joyce Hansen, Between Two Fires: Black Soldiers in the Civil War (New York: Franklin Watts, 1993). [also refers to black nurses of the Civil War]

Wilma King, Toward the Promised Land, 1851-1861: From Uncle Tom's Cabin to the Onset of the Civil War (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

Zak Mettger, Till Victory Is Won: Black Soldiers in the Civil War (New York: Lodestar Books/Dutton, 1994).

Kay Moore, . . . If You Lived at the Time of the Civil War, illus. Anni Matsick (New York: Scholastic, 1994).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 40-43.

James M. McPherson, Marching toward Freedom: The Negro in the Civil War, 1861-1865 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965/1967).

Catherine Reef, Civil War Soldiers (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1993).

Susan Sinnott, Welcome to Addy's World, 1864: Growing Up during America's Civil War, illus. Laszlo Kubinyi, Susan McAliley, Susan Moore, and Dahl Taylor, ed. Tamara England and Jodi Evert (Middletown, WI: Pleasant Co., 1999).

Colonial and Revolutionary Eras

Burke Davis, Black Heroes of the American Revolution (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976).

Lavinia Dobler and Edgar A. Toppin, Pioneers and Patriots: The Lives of Six Negroes of the Revolutionary Era, illus. Colleen Browning (Garden City, NY: Zenith Books/Doubleday, 1965).

Deborah Kent, African-Americans in the Thirteen Colonies (Danbury, CT: Children's Press/Grolier Pub., 1996).

Daniel C. Littlefield, Revolutionary Citizens: African Americans, 1776-1804 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 19-27.

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994), 33-40, 53.

Don Nardo, Braving the New World, 1619-1784: From the Arrival of the Enslaved Africans to the End of the American Revolution (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

Colin A. Palmer, The First Passage: Blacks in the Americas, 1502-1617 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Peter H. Wood, Strange New Land: African Americans, 1617-1776 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Explorers

Jim Haskins, Against All Opposition: Black Explorers in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1992).

A. E. Schraff, Black Courage, illus. Len Ebert (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1969).

Harlem Renaissance

Michael L. Cooper, Bound for the Promised Land: The Great Black Migration (New York: Dutton/Lodestar, 1995), 46-67.

James Haskins, Black Dance in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1990), 41-68.

James Haskins, Black Music in America: A History through Its People (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987), 81-102.

Pam Nelson, Mari Florence, Naomi Wax, Cool Women[: The Thinking Girl's Guide to the Hippest Women in History], ed. Pam Nelson, designed by Amy Inouye (Chicago, IL: Girl Press, 1998), 46-47. [Harlem Renaissance women]

Military (also see Civil War [above] and World War I and World War II [below])

Lt. Col. [Ret.] Michael Lee Lanning, The African-American Soldier: From Crispus Attucks to Colin Powell (Secaucus, NJ: A Birch Lane Press Book/Carol Pub. Group, 1997).

Catherine Reef, Black Fighting Men: A Proud History (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1994).

Catherine Reef, Civil War Soldiers (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1993).

Post-WWII

Vincent Harding, Robin D. G. Kelley, and Earl Lewis, We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Robin D. G. Kelley, Into the Fire: African Americans since 1970 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Reconstruction and Post-Reconstruction

Barbara Bair, Though Justice Sleeps: African Americans, 1880-1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Noralee Frankel, Break Those Chains at Last: African Americans, 1860-1880 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Pierre Hauser, Great Ambitions, 1896-1909: From the "Separate but Equal" Doctrine to the Birth of the NAACP (New York: Chelsea House, 1995).

Elizabeth Fitzgerald Howard, Virgie Goes to School with Us Boys, illus. E. B. Lewis (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2000).

Scientists and Inventors

Fred M. B. Amram, African-American Inventors: Lonnie Johnson, Frederick McKinley Jones, Marjorie Stewart Joyner, Elijah McCoy, Garrett Augustus Morgan (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996).

Richard X. Donovan, Black Scientists of America (Portland, OR: National Book Co., 1990).

Louis Haber, Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (San Diego: An Odyssey Book/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970).

Jim Haskins, Outward Dreams: Black Inventors and Their Inventions (New York: Walker & Co., 1991).

Robert C. Hayden, Eight Black American Inventors (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972). Revised as: Robert C. Hayden, Nine African American Inventors (New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992).

Robert C. Hayden, Eleven African American Doctors [illus. Richard Loehle] (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1992).

Robert C. Hayden, Seven Black American Scientists (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970).

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors II: Bill Becoat, George Carruthers, Meredith Gourdine, Jesse Hoagland, Wanda Sigur (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998).

Susan K. Henderson, African-American Inventors III: Patricia Bath, Philip Emeagwali, Henry Sampson, Valerie Thomas, Peter Tolliver (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1998).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Inventors (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, African-American Scientists (Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994).

Jetty St. John, African-American Scientists: Robert Jones, Reatha Clark King, Walter Massey, Franklyn G. Prendergast, Larry Shannon (Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996).

Otha Richard Sullivan, African American Inventors (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

Lisa Yount, Black Scientists (New York: Facts on File, 1991).

Sharecropping and the Great Migration

Michael L. Cooper, Bound for the Promised Land: The Great Black Migration (New York: Dutton/Lodestar, 1995).

Jacob Lawrence, with Walter Dean Myers, The Great Migration: An American Story (New York: The Museum of Modern Art/The Phillips Collection/HarperCollins, 1993).

Dorothy Marie Rice and Lucille Mabel Walthall Payne, The Seventeenth Child (North Haven, CT: Linnet Book/Shoe String Press, 1998).

Leon Walter Tillage, Leon's Story, illus. Susan L. Roth (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1997).

Michele Wood, Going back Home: An Artist Returns to the South, words by Toyomi Igus (San Francisco: Children's Book Press, 1996).

Sports

Michael L. Cooper, Playing America's Game: The Story of Negro League Baseball (New York: Lodestar Books/Dutton, 1993).

Robert Gardner and Dennis Shortelle, The Forgotten Players: The Story of Black Baseball in America (New York: Walker & Co., 1993).

Tom Gilbert, Baseball and the Color Line (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995).

Kevin Horrigan, The Right Kind of Heroes: Coach Bob Shannon and the East St. Louis Flyers (New York: HarperPerennial, 1992).

Shaun Hunter, Great African Americans in the Olympics (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1997).

J. Kelly, Superstars of Women's Basketball (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997/1998).

S. A. Kramer, Basketball's Greatest Players[: A Step 4 Book] (New York: Random House, 1997).

S. A. Kramer, Hoop Stars[: O'Neal, Robinson, Barkley, Olajuwon], illus. Mitchell Heinze (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1995).

Jacob Margolies, The Negro Leagues: The Story of Black Baseball (New York: Franklin Watts, 1994).

Patricia C. McKissack and Fredrick McKissack, Jr., Black Diamond: The Story of the Negro Baseball Leagues (New York: Scholastic, 1994).

William Miller, Night Golf, illus. Cedric Lucas (New York: Lee & Low Books, 1999).

Martha Ward Plowden, Olympic Black Women, illus. Ronald Jones (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 1996).

Ken Rappoport, Guts and Glory: Making It in the NBA (New York: Walker & Co., 1997).

Pat Rediger, Great African Americans in Sports (New York: Crabtree Pub., 1996).

Lawrence S. Ritter, Leagues Apart: The Men and Times of the Negro Baseball Leagues, illus. Richard Merkin (New York: Mulberry Books/William Morrow, 1995).

Martha Wickham, Superstars of Women's Track and Field (New York: Chelsea House Pub., 1997).

Josh Wilker, The Harlem Globetrotters (New York: Chelsea House, 1997).

Underground Railroad

Raymond Bial, The Underground Railroad (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1995).

Charles L. Blockson, The Underground Railroad: First-Person Narratives of Escapes to Freedom in the North (New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1987).

Bernardine Connelly, Follow the Drinking Gourd [A Story of the Underground Railroad], illus. Yvonne Buchanan (New York: Rabbit Ears Books, 1997). Accompanied by a compact disk: story told by Morgan Freeman, with music by Taj Mahal.

Pamela Duncan Edwards, Barefoot: Escape on the Underground Railroad, illus. Henry Cole (New York: HarperCollins, 1997).

James Haskins, Get on Board: The Story of the Underground Railroad (New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1993).

Julius Lester, From Slave Ship to Freedom Road, illus. Rod Brown (New York: Dial Books, 1998).

Ellen Levine, . . . If You Traveled on the Underground Railroad, illus. Larry Johnson (New York: Scholastic, 1992).

Kem Knapp Sawyer, The Underground Railroad in American History (Springfield, NJ: Enslow Pub., 1997).

Jeanette Winter, Follow the Drinking Gourd, illus. Jeanette Winter (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988).

Courtni C. Wright, Journey to Freedom: A Story of the Underground Railroad, illus. Gershom Griffith (New York: Holiday House, 1994).

The West

Olive W. Burt, Negroes in the Early West, illus. Lorence F. Bjorklund (New York: Julian Messner, 1969).

Gina De Angelis, The Black Cowboys (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Pub., 1998).

William Loren Katz, Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage (New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1986/1997).

William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977).

William Loren Katz, Black Women of the Old West (New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 1995).

William Loren Katz, The Westward Movement and Abolitionism, 1815-1850 (Austin, TX: Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1993).

William Loren Katz and Paula A. Franklin, Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans (New York: Atheneum, 1993).

Tom McGowen, African-Americans in the Old West (Danbury, CT: Children's Press/Grolier Pub., 1998).

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy, illus. Robert H. Miller (Willingboro, NJ: Waterline Productions, 1988). [Book One] [with cassette audio tape]

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Cowboys, illus. Richard Leonard (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991). [Book One]

Robert H. Miller, Reflections of a Black Cowboy: Mountain Men, illus. Richard Leonard (Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1992). [Book Four]

Ruth Pelz, Black Heroes of the Wild West, illus. Leandro Della Paina (Seattle: Open Hand Pub./Talman, 1990).

Catherine Reef, Buffalo Soldiers (New York: Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt, 1993).

Lillian Schlissel, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

A. E. Schraff, Black Courage, illus. Len Ebert (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1969).

Walker D. Wyman and John D. Hart, The Legend of Charlie Glass: Negro Cowboy on the Colorado-Utah Range, illus. Helen B. Wyman [including an original ballad by William L. Clark] (River Falls, WI: River Falls State University Press, 1970). [for adults but may be suitable for young adults]

WWI, WWII, between the Wars, and the Great Depression

James R. Grossman, A Chance to Make Good: African Americans, 1900-1929 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Jacqueline L. Harris, The Tuskegee Airmen: Black Heroes of World War II (Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1996).

Ann Chandler Howell, Tuskegee Airmen: Heroes in Flight for Dignity, Inclusion, and Citizenship Rights, illus. Greg Johannes (Chicago: Chandler/White Pub. Co., 1994).

Patricia and Fredrick McKissack, Red-Tail Angels: The Story of the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II (New York: Walker & Co., 1995).

Dorothy Marie Rice and Lucille Mabel Walthall Payne, The Seventeenth Child (North Haven, CT: Linnet Book/Shoe String Press, 1998).

Era Bell Thompson, American Daughter (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946). [autobiography]

Joe William Trotter, Jr., From a Raw Deal to a New Deal? African Americans, 1929-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Martha Wickham, A Golden Age: The Golden Age of Radio, illus. Dan Brown (Norwalk, CT & Washington, DC: Soundprints & Smithsonian Institute, 1996).

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