University of Utah
Whiteness Theory and Education
Fall 2001
Office: 308C MBH
Audrey Thompson
mailbox in 307 MBH
Office Hours:
ECS 6950-003
voicemail: 587-7803
M 1:00-4:30 & Th 1:00-5:30 and by appt. 587-7814
meets M 4:35-7:35 p.m. 
in OSH 234
e-mail:
http://www.pauahtun.org/audrey.html

Overview

Whiteness theory is intended to make white cultural assumptions and privileges visible so that whites do not assume that their own position is neutral or normal. Although in many ways consistent with the aims of multicultural theory, whiteness theory is also distinct from multiculturalism. Multicultural theory involves fostering an appreciation of cultures other than the dominant culture; in its more radical forms, multiculturalism also involves problematizing the assumptions of the dominant culture. But because multicultural approaches are concerned with displacing white culture from its position of dominance, they usually do not focus on whiteness as a distinctive culture or identity. Whiteness theory focuses specifically on whiteness as a cultural position — a position and an identity that, to a considerable extent, are gained at the expense of people of color.

Whiteness theory is particularly important for educators, since white cultural norms are systematically enforced (usually without any recognition that they are white norms) in the schools. A teacher who can deconstruct his or her own whiteness is far better positioned to see why prevailing pedagogical and curricular patterns might not work for students. Even white teachers who are fully committed to multiculturalism often fail to see how their own investments in white culture as a universal culture get in the way of their good intentions vis-a-vis students of color.

Among the topics with which the course will be concerned will be the various analyses undertaken by whiteness theory, whiteness as epistemology, whiteness in relation to pedagogy, whiteness in relation to texts and the curriculum, and the politics of different approaches to whiteness education (such as the “allies” approach).

Structure

The class will meet once a week, each time discussing the readings on the syllabus. To participate actively in class, it is essential that you read carefully, prepare questions, and jot down any issues you wish to discuss. I will make short presentations to provide necessary background information. My primary role, however, will be to ask questions, clarify points raised in our discussions, and summarize the important issues that we discuss.

Texts

The articles will be available for purchase as a bound collection from Empire Publishing or in a few cases as handouts or as links on the electronic version of the syllabus.

Course Requirements

In addition to the assigned reading, regular attendance, and participation grounded in the readings, course requirements include several journal entries (2-3 pages each), one short paper (5 pages), and a longer final paper (10-12 pages). You will be required to turn in a good draft of the final paper two weeks before the final due date. There is no final exam.
 
 

Participation and attendance: 15% of grade
Journals: 20% of grade
Short Paper: 25% of grade
Final paper: 40% of grade

By the third class meeting, I would like you to have identified 4 themes that you will be looking at throughout the readings; the four themes should correspond to the four categories of whiteness theory (psychological/identity; material; institutional; and discursive). Thus, for example, you might look for how the readings speak to questions of voice or listening (psychological/identity); health or property (material); authority or merit (institutional); and intelligibility or vulnerability (discursive). (To some extent, themes may cut across the categories. Merit, for example, might be understood in terms of all four categories.)

The journal entries should be typed (double-spaced) and are to be turned in for comments. Make your journal entries as useful as possible; this means that you should be specific about your ideas and questions (and about the readings) so that when you get back to them weeks later you will find them interesting and helpful. The entries do not have to be highly crafted, but they should not be sloppy. Use full sentences, proofread your entries, and use language that is vivid and specific enough to invite further exploration.

You will be asked to prepare six journal assignments of 2-3 pages each, for six different class periods. It is up to you to decide which sets of readings you want to respond to, except that at least two journal entries are due (and should be turned in) before the short paper. You do not need to write about every single theme each time you choose to write, but discuss at least two of your themes each time. Make sure that each theme gets discussed at least twice over the course of the semester. (Some themes may get discussed more than others.) Your journal entries do not need to include every single one of the readings for the class session in question, but they should take up the majority of the readings. They should grapple with and be importantly informed by the readings; they should not just respond to them glancingly.

The journal entries will help prepare you for your final paper, which is to take up two or more of the themes you have chosen. Thus, for example, your final paper might explore how whiteness theories inform your understanding of fairness (discursive category) in relation to access to well-paying jobs (material) or, perhaps, objectivity (discursive) in relation to academic publishing protocols (institutional). Your final paper will need to take into account two or three outside readings in order to do justice to your themes. However, the paper should be distinctively a paper for this course, not a paper from another course that you have tweaked or padded with references to the course readings. The final paper must be centrally informed by the course readings, lectures, and discussions.

Clarifications, Cautions, and Ground Rules

For white teachers, it is important to see when and how white privilege matters and what can be done about it. This course will ask you to look at exactly how whiteness affects various relations and situations. Whiteness has an enormous organizing effect on other forms of power and privilege. Accordingly, we will be talking about how race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, and other positionalities interlock to create, maintain, and support white privilege. You will be asked to look at the nuances of relationships, at various privileging mechanisms, and at specific racialized patterns; it will not be enough to talk about privilege in sweeping or absolute terms. Thus, we will not be ranking the various kinds of privilege and oppression but will be talking about white privilege in context. (If you are homeless, it is not much consolation if you are a member of the elite category of straight white males. Yet your whiteness might be relevant to the chances of your avoiding arrest, for example.)

Whiteness theory does not address whiteness as a question of racial guilt or innocence based on skin color but as a system of privileges that is maintained discursively, institutionally, and materially (as well as in other ways). What this means is that all of us are likely to participate in maintaining the codes of whiteness in various ways. Even challenging others to be anti-racist, depending on how it’s done, can be a way of “proving” our own superiority and thus suggesting (for example) that we (those of us who are white and progressive) are “good whites.” Be prepared to rethink some of the values and practices you think of as anti-racist.

For many white teachers, whiteness as privilege is a new idea and it is difficult to avoid being defensive. If you are new to the idea of white privilege, try to monitor your defensiveness about whiteness; on the other hand, if you are comfortable with talk about race privilege, remember how complex a process the development of that awareness is and how problematic your or anyone’s current understanding is likely to be. Also remember that no one in academia, regardless of color, escapes whiteness altogether: many of the values and privileges of whiteness are built into academic discourse. If you have made it this far, you are participating in some of the privileges of whiteness, even if you are a person of color.

I will be asking everyone to think like educators: if you feel that you have a better or different understanding of particular materials than do others in the class, see if you can make that understanding available to others without lecturing them. If you feel threatened by particular people in the class, think about how to address them so as to get past the impasse: how can you teach them how you would like to learn from them? Thinking as educators means attending to the conditions of learning as well as to whether everyone is learning. This doesn’t mean that no one can ever get angry or that everyone should always be “nice,” but it does mean showing respect.

Regardless of your situation, it is likely that you will at times find yourself uncomfortable with the arguments and analyses you encounter in a course such as this, and in some cases you may find the theories intimidating. Not only are such experiences unavoidable but they are desirable insofar as they are part of unsettling what we think we know about ourselves and others. It takes time and study to move beyond anxious discomfort. While the course will not attempt to eliminate discomfort, it will try to make your discomfort interesting.

Schedule of Class Topics and Reading

Mon. 27 Aug. Introduction
Readings:

McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”
Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness: The Case of Latinos(as)”
Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism”
Deconstructing whiteness in film: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?
 

Mon. 3 Sept. No class: Labor Day
 

Mon. 10 Sept. White Privilege
Readings:

Bennett, “Tea and Sympathy: Liberals and Other White Hopes”
Ignatiev, “The Point is Not to Interpret Whiteness but to Abolish It,” found at
http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/thepoint.html
Thompson, essay review found at http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm


Mon. 17 Sept. Whiteness in Historical Perspective
Readings:

Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History”
Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia”
Takaki, “The Tempest in the Wilderness: The Racialization of Savagery”
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness”


Mon. 24 Sept. Material Whiteness Theorizing
Readings:

Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies”
Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz]”
Taylor, “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz]”
Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz]”
Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response]”

Electronic handout, “Summary of Whiteness Theory


Mon. 1 Oct. Institutional Whiteness
Readings:

Chalmers, “White Out: Multicultural Performances in a Progressive School”
Gilmore, Smith, and Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle”
Larson and Ovando, The Color of Bureaucracy: The Politics of Equity in Multicultural School Communities, ch. 3 and 4


Mon. 8 Oct. Discursive Whiteness Theorizing, Pt. I
Readings:

Kidder, “Colonial Remnants: Assumptions of Privilege”
Weis, Proweller, and Centrie, “Re-examining ‘A Moment in History’: Loss of Privilege Inside White Working-Class Masculinity in the 1990s”
Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’”
Handout: Short paper topics.
 
Electronic handout:  Thompson, “Tips for Writing Scholarly Papers”
This is an Adobe Acrobat file.  Get the Free Acrobat Reader at  Get Acrobat Adobe.

 

Mon. 15 Oct. Discursive Whiteness Theorizing, Pt. II
Readings:

hooks, “Gangsta Culture — Sexism and Misogyny: Who Will Take the Rap?”
Rogin, “Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures”
Carby, “Encoding White Resentment: Grand Canyon — A Narrative for Our Times”
Deconstructing whiteness in film: Tarzan and The Jungle Book
 

Mon. 22 Oct. Struggling with White Identity
Readings:

Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart”
Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities”
Short paper due. (Topic choices to be handed out in advance.)
 

Mon. 29 Oct. Reconstructing White Identity
Readings:

Helms, “Toward a Model of White Racial Identity Development”
Frye, “White Woman Feminist”
Davion, “Reflections on the Meaning of White [Response to Frye]”


Mon. 5 Nov. Teachers and Whiteness
Reading:

Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited”
Kailin, “How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in ‘Liberal’ Lakeview”
Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race”
In-class project: Bring to class an illustrated children’s book (fiction or biography) that includes people of different races or ethnicities but has a white person as at least one of its protagonists. The book doesn’t necessarily have to have race as its overt topic. (The six city libraries have good children’s book selections, or you may want to check the Marriott Library or your school library.) We will be deconstructing whiteness in children’s books during part of class, working in groups of two or three.

Deconstructing whiteness in children’s movies: Cinderella
 

Mon. 12 Nov. Preparing Teachers
Readings:

King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers”
Lawrence and Tatum, “White Teachers as Allies: Moving from Awareness to Action”
Rodriguez, “Emptying the Content of Whiteness: Toward an Understanding of the Relation between Whiteness and Pedagogy”


Mon. 19 Nov. Whiteness and Pedagogy
Readings:

Hytten and Warren, “Engaging Whiteness: How Racial Power Gets Reified in Education”
Giroux, “White Squall: Resistance and the Pedagogy of Whiteness”
Mayo, “Civility and Its Discontents: Sexuality, Race, and the Lure of Beautiful Manners”
Outlines and thesis statements for final papers due
 

Mon. 26 Nov. Institutional Whiteness and Knowledge
Readings:

Woodson, Mis-Education of the Negro (ch. 1, 3)
Scheurich and Young, “Coloring Epistemologies: Are Our Research Epistemologies Racially Biased?”
Good drafts of final papers due
 

Mon. 3 Dec. Whiteness and the Academy
Readings:

Ellsworth, “Double Binds of Whiteness”
Thompson, “The Whiteness of the APA Guidelines”
Nakayama and Krizek, “Whiteness as a Strategic Rhetoric”


Tues. 11 Dec. Final paper due by 6:00 p.m.
 
 

Selected Bibliography
Whiteness Studies, Whiteness Theory

Rebecca Aanerud, “Fictions of Whiteness: Speaking the Names of Whiteness in U.S. Literature,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 35-59.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Now More than Ever: James Baldwin and the Critique of White Liberalism,” in James Baldwin Now, ed. Dwight A. McBride (New York: New York University Press, 1999), 56-74.

John Alberti, “The Nigger Huck: Race, Identity, and the Teaching of Huckleberry Finn,” College English 57, no. 8 (December 1995): 919-37.

Linda Martín Alcoff, “What Should White People Do?” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 6-26.

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control (London: Verso, 1994).

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (London: Verso, 1997).

W. B. Allen, “Response to a ‘White Discourse on Racism,’” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 11-13.

Tomás Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).

Barbara Applebaum and Erin Stoik, “On the Meaning and Necessity of a White, Anti-Racist Identity,” in Philosophy of Education 2000, ed. Lynda Stone (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2001), 307-16.

Valerie Babb, Whiteness Visible: The Meaning of Whiteness in American Literature and Culture (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Alison Bailey, “Despising an Identity They Taught Me to Claim: Exploring a Dilemma of White Privilege Awareness,” in Whiteness: Feminist Philosophical Narratives, ed. Chris J. Cuomo and Kim Q. Hall (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 85-104.

Alison Bailey, “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character,” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 27-42.

James Baldwin, Collected Essays[: Notes of a Native Son, Nobody Knows My Name, The Fire Next Time, No Name in the Street, The Devil Finds Work, Other Essays], selected by Toni Morrison (New York: Library of America, 1998).

James Baldwin, The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985).

James Baldwin, “On Being ‘White’ . . . and Other Lies,” in Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White, ed. David R. Roediger (New York: Schocken, 1998), 177-180. [orig. published in Essence in 1984]

Daniel Barnardi, The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of U. S. Cinema (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996).

Keith H. Basso, Portraits of “The Whiteman”: Linguistic Play and Cultural Symbols among the Western Apache, illus. Vincent Craig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Derrick Bell, “White Superiority in America: Its Legal Legacy, Its Economic Costs,” Villanova Law Review 33, no. 5 (September 1988): 767-79.

Robin M. Bennefield [interviewer], “Whiteness Studies: Deceptive or Welcome Discourse? [Karenga on Whiteness Studies],” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 26-27.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “Tea and Sympathy: Liberals and Other White Hopes,” in The Negro Mood and Other Essays (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1964), 74-104.

Maurice Berger, White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999).

Bernita C. Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 45-51. With an appendix: Marsha Houston, “Why the Dialogues Are Difficult or 15 Ways a Black Woman Knows When a White Woman’s Not Listening” (52-55).

Kathleen M. Blee, “White on White: Interviewing Women in U.S. White Supremacist Groups,” in Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies, ed. France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 93-109.

Lawrence Blum, “Moral Asymmetries in Racism,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 79-97.

Lawrence Blum, “Race, Community and Moral Education: Kohlberg and Spielberg as Civic Educators,” Journal of Moral Education 28, no. 2 (1999): 125-43.

Lawrence Blum, “What Is ‘Racism’ in Anti-Racist Education?” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 860-80. [Essay review]

Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996). Original edition: Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Pub., 1981). [Published in cooperation with the Institute for the Study of Contemporary Social Problems]

Karen Brodkin, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says about Race in America (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, Impossible Purities: Blackness, Femininity, and Victorian Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, “Rereading Race and Gender: When White Women Matter” [book review of Beyond the Pale, by Vron Ware, White Women, Race Matters, by Ruth Frankenberg, and Memoir of a Race Traitor, by Mab Segrest], American Quarterly 48, no. 1 (March 1996): 153-60. Also online at http://www.press.jhu.edu/demo/american_quarterly/48.1br_ware.html

Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith, eds., Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984).

Judith Butler, “Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia,” in Reading Rodney King, Reading Urban Uprising, ed. Robert Gooding-Williams (New York: Routledge, 1993), 15-22.

Hazel Carby, “Encoding White Resentment: Grand Canyon — A Narrative for Our Times,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 236-47.

Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain, ed. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham (London: Hutchinson, 1982), 212-235. Reprinted as Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader, ed. Houston A. Baker, Jr., Manthia Diawara, and Ruth H. Lindeborg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 61-86; and in a shortened version as Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in Black British Feminism: A Reader, ed. Heidi Safia Mirza (London: Routledge, 1997), 45-53.

Robert T. Carter, “White Racial Identity,” in The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995), 100-14.

Sarah Carter, Capturing Women: The Manipulation of Cultural Imagery in Canada’s Prairie West (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997).

Vicki K. Carter, “Computer-Assisted Racism: Toward an Understanding of ‘Cyberwhiteness,’” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 269-83.

Center for the Study of White American Culture [Web site] http://www.euroamerican.org/

Angie Chabram-Dernersesian, “On the Social Construction of Whiteness within Selected Chicana/o Discourses,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 107-164.

Virginia Chalmers, “White Out: Multicultural Performances in a Progressive School,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 66-78.

Ward Churchill, “White Studies: The Intellectual Imperialism of U. S. Higher Education,” in Beyond Comfort Zones in Multiculturalism: Confronting the Politics of Privilege, ed. Sandra Jackson and José Solís (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1995), 17-35.

Christine Clark and James O’Donnell, eds., Becoming and Unbecoming White: Owning and Disowning a Racial Identity (Westport, CT: Begin & Garvey, 1999).

Marilyn Cochran-Smith, “Uncertain Allies: Understanding the Boundaries of Race and Teaching,” Harvard Educational Review 65, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 541-70.

Phil Cohen, “Laboring under Whiteness,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 244-82.

Chris J. Cuomo and Kim Q. Hall, eds., Whiteness: Feminist Philosophical Narratives (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999).

Renée R. Curry, White Women Writing White: H. D., Elizabeth Bishop, Sylvia Plath, and Whiteness (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000).

Victoria Davion, “Reflections on the Meaning of White [Response to Frye],” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 135-39.

Jane Davis, The White Image in the Black Mind: A Study of African American Literature (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000).

Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, eds., Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997).

Philip J. Deloria, Playing Indian (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).

Vine Deloria, Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (New York: Avon, 1969). Also: Vine Deloria, Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988).

Louise Derman-Sparks and Carol Brunson Phillips, Teaching/Learning Anti-Racism: A Developmental Approach (New York: Teachers College Press, 1997).

Virginia R. Dominguez, White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986).

W. E. B. Du Bois, An ABC of Color (New York: International Publishers, 1989). [Orig. 1963]

W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 (Philadelphia: Albert Saifer, 1935 [reprinted Harcourt, Brace & Co.]). Reprinted as Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 (New York: Atheneum, 1992).

W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Souls of White Folk,” in W. E. B. Du Bois: A Reader, ed. David Levering Lewis (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1995), 453-65. [Orig. 1920]

Ann DuCille, “Barbie in Black and White,” in The Barbie Chronicles: A Living Doll Turns Forty, ed. Yona Zeldis McDonough (New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1999), 127-42.

Richard Dyer, White (London: Routledge, 1997).

Richard Dyer, “White,” Screen 29, no. 4 (Autumn 1988): 44-64.

Ebony, ed., The WHITE Problem in America (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966). [originally published as a special issue of Ebony Magazine in August, 1965]

Ebony, “Humor in Black and White,” in The WHITE Problem in America, ed. Ebony (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966), 87-92.

Ebony, “The Typical White Suburbanite,” in The WHITE Problem in America, ed. Ebony (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966), 105-109.

Ebony, “What Whites Can Learn from Negroes,” in The WHITE Problem in America, ed. Ebony (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966), 159-163.

Elizabeth Ellsworth, “Double Binds of Whiteness,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 259-69.

Joe R. Feagin and Hernán Vera, White Racism: The Basics (New York: Routledge, 1995). Revised as: Joe R. Feagin, Hernán Vera, and Pinar Batur, White Racism: The Basics, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Joe R. Feagin, Hernán Vera, and Nikitah Imani, The Agony of Education: Black Students at White Colleges and Universities (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Abby L. Ferber, White Man Falling: Race, Gender and White Supremacy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998).

Barbara J. Fields, “Ideology and Race in American History,” in Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward, ed. J. Morgan Kousser and James M. McPherson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 143-77.

Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong, eds., Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, and Linda C. Powell, “Communities of Difference: A Critical Look at Desegregated Spaces Created for and by Youth,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 247-84.

Shelley Fisher Fishkin, “Interrogating ‘Whiteness,’ Complicating ‘Blackness’: Remapping American Culture,” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 428-66.

Barbara J. Flagg, Was Blind, But Now I See: White Race Consciousness and the Law (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Neil Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

Ruth Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993).

Ruth Frankenberg, ed., Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997).

Ruth Frankenberg, “Introduction: Local Whitenesses, Localizing Whiteness,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 1-33.

Ruth Frankenberg, “‘When We Are Capable of Stopping, We Begin to See’: Being White, Seeing Whiteness,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 2-17.

Ruth Frankenberg, “Whiteness and Americanness: Examining Constructions of Race, Culture, and Nation in White Women’s Life Narratives,” in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 62-77.

Marilyn Friedman, “Racism: Paradigms and Moral Appraisal (A Response to Blum),” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 98-107.

Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Willful Virgin: Essays in Feminism, 1976-1992 (Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1992), 147-69. Also: Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 113-34.

John Gabriel, Whitewash: Racialized Politics and the Media (London: Routledge, 1998).

Jane Gaines, “White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory,” Screen 29, no. 4 (Autumn 1988): 12-27. [An earlier version appeared in Cultural Critique 4 (Fall 1986).]

Charles A. Gallagher, “White Like Me? Methods, Meaning, and Manipulation in the Field of White Studies,” in Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies, ed. France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 67-92.

Charles A. Gallagher, “White Reconstruction in the University,” Socialist Review 94, nos. 1 & 2 (1995): 165-87.

Henry Louis Gates, Jr., “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man,” In Race: An Anthology in the First Person, ed. Bart Schneider (New York: Crown, 1997), 143-62. [Orig. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man,” New Yorker LXXI (October 23, 1995): 56-65.]

Nelson George, “On White Negroes,” in Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White, ed. David R. Roediger (New York: Schocken, 1998), 225-232. [orig. 1988]

Perry Gilmore, David M. Smith, and Apacuar Larry Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 90-99.

Henry A. Giroux, “Rewriting the Discourse of Racial Identity: Towards a Pedagogy and Politics of Whiteness,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 285-320.

Henry A. Giroux, “White Noise: Racial Politics and the Pedagogy of Whiteness,” in Channel Surfing: Race Talk and the Destruction of Today’s Youth (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997), 89-136.

Henry A. Giroux, “White Squall: Resistance and the Pedagogy of Whiteness,” Cultural Studies 11, no. 3 (1997): 376-89.

Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999).

Susan Gubar, Racechanges: White Skin, Black Face in American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Robert V. Guthrie, Even the Rat Was White: A Historical View of Psychology, 2nd ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998). [Orig. 1976]

Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York: Pantheon, 1998).

Kim Hall, “Learning to Touch Honestly: A White Lesbian’s Struggle with Racism,” in Lesbian Philosophies and Cultures, ed. Jeffner Allen (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990), 317-26.

Phillip Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia,” The William and Mary Quarterly (Third Series) 55, no. 4 (October 1998): 531-56.

Cheryl I. Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” Harvard Law Review 106, no. 8 (June 1993): 1707-1791. Reprinted in abbreviated form as Cheryl I. Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” in Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement, ed. Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York: The New Press, 1995), 276-91.

John Hartigan, Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999).

John Hartigan, “Locating White Detroit,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 180-213.

Janet E. Helms, A Race Is a Nice Thing to Have: A Guide to Being a White Person or Understanding the White Persons in Your Life (Topeka, KS: Content Communications, 1992).

Janet E. Helms, ed., Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research, and Practice (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990).

Janet E. Helms, “Racial Identity and ‘Racial’ Constructs,” in Human Diversity: Perspectives on People in Context, ed. Edison J. Trickett, Roderick J. Watts, and Dina Birman (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994), 285-311.

Janet E. Helms, “Toward a Model of White Racial Identity Development,” in Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research, and Practice, ed. Janet E. Helms (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990), 49-66.

Rosemary Henze, Tamara Lucas, and Beverly Scott, “Dancing with the Monster: Teachers Discuss Racism, Power, and White Privilege in Education,” The Urban Review 30, no. 3 (1998): 187-210.

Calvin C. Hernton, White Papers for White Americans (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966).

Calvin C. Hernton, “The Debt I Owe,” in White Papers for White Americans (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966), 3-50.

Mike Hill, ed., Whiteness: A Critical Reader (New York: New York University Press, 1997).

Fred Hobson, But Now I See: The White Southern Racial Conversion Narrative (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999).

bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989).

bell hooks, Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990).

bell hooks, “Gangsta Culture — Sexism and Misogyny: Who Will Take the Rap?” in Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations (New York: Routledge, 1994), 115-23.

bell hooks, “Representations of Whiteness,” in Black Looks: Race and Representation (Boston: South End Press, 1992), 165-78.

bell hooks, “Representations of Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Killing Rage: Ending Racism (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1995), 31-50.

bell hooks, “Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Cultural Studies, ed. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson, and Paula A. Treichler, with Linda Baughman and John Macgregor Wise (New York: Routledge, 1992), 338-46. Reprinted as: bell hooks, “Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 165-79.

bell hooks, “Representing Whiteness: Seeing Wings of Desire,” Zeta 2 (March 1989).

Reginald Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981).

Gary R. Howard, We Can’t Teach What We Don’t Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools (New York: Teachers College Press, 1999).

Gary R. Howard, “Whites in Multicultural Education: Rethinking Our Role,” Phi Delta Kappan 75, no. 1 (September 1993): 36-41.

Dennis Howitt and J. Owusu-Bempah, The Racism of Psychology: Time for Change (New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf/Simon & Schuster, 1994).

Aída Hurtado, The Color of Privilege: Three Blasphemies on Race and Feminism (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996).

Kathy Hytten and John T. Warren, “The Pedagogical Question of Whiteness,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Studies Association, in November 2000 (Vancouver, BC).

Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Noel Ignatiev, “The Point is Not to Interpret Whiteness but to Abolish It” [a talk given at the conference “The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness,” Berkeley, California, April 11-13, 1997], Race Traitor [online feature articles and editorials] http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/thepoint.html

Noel Ignatiev, “Race Traitor: Abolitionism and ‘White Studies’” [based on a talk at the University of California-Riverside, February, 1998 ], Race Traitor [online feature articles and editorials] http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/whitestudies.html

Noel Ignatiev and John Garvey, eds., Race Traitor (New York: Routledge, 1996).

R. L. Jackson, “White Space, White Privilege: Mapping Discursive Inquiry into the Self,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (1999): 38-54.

Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998).

Robert Jensen, “More Thoughts on Why System of White Privilege Is Wrong: Bias: After Being Criticized for His Article Last Year, the Author Ponders More Deeply the Realities of Racism in America,” Baltimore Sun (Sunday, July 4, 1999), Perspectives Section, 1C; search at http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~rjensen/freelance/whitefolo.htm

Robert Jensen, “White Privilege Shapes the U.S.,” Baltimore Sun (July 19, 1998); reprinted at http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~rjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm

Kathe Jervis, “‘How Come There Are No Brothers on That List?’ Hearing the Hard Questions All Children Ask,” Harvard Educational Review 66, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 546-76.

Winthrop D. Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968).

Julie Kailin, “How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in ‘Liberal’ Lakeview,” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 724-50.

Judy H. Katz, White Awareness: Handbook for Anti-Racism Training (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978).

Melanie Kaye/Kantrowitz, “Jews, Class, Color and the Cost of Whiteness,” in The Issue Is Power: Essays on Women, Jews, Violence and Resistance (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1992), 139-49.

Melanie Kaye/Kantrowitz, “Jews in the U. S.: The Rising Costs of Whiteness,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 120-37.

AnnLouise Keating, “Interrogating ‘Whiteness,’ (De)Constructing ‘Race,’” College English 57, no. 8 (December 1995): 901-18.

Louise H. Kidder, “Colonial Remnants: Assumptions of Privilege,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 158-66.

Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault, eds., White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998).

Joyce E. King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers,” The Journal of Negro Education 60, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 133-46.

Joel Kovel, White Racism: A Psychohistory (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970).

Colleen L. Larson and Carlos J. Ovando, The Color of Bureaucracy: The Politics of Equity in Multicultural School Communities (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001).

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teachers in Transition: The Impact of Antiracist Professional Development on Classroom Practice,” Teachers College Record 99, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 162-78.

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “White Teachers as Allies: Moving from Awareness to Action,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 333-42.

Jane Lazarre, Beyond the Whiteness of Whiteness: Memoir of a White Mother of Black Sons (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996).

George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998).

George Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies,” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 369-87.

George Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 416-27.

Ian F. Haney López, White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Cris Mayo, “Civility and Its Discontents: Sexuality, Race, and the Lure of Beautiful Manners,” in Philosophy of Education 2001, ed. Suzanne Rice (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, in press).

Cris Mayo, “Vertigo at the Heart of Whiteness,” in Philosophy of Education 2000, ed. Lynda Stone (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2001), 317-20.

Cameron McCarthy, Ed Buendía, Carol Mills, Shuaib Meacham, Heriberto Godina, Carrie Wilson-Brown, Maria Seferian, and Theresa Souchet, “The Last Rational Men: Citizenship, Morality, and the Pursuit of Human Perfection,” in Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, and Aaron D. Gresson III (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 251-64.

Cameron McCarthy, Alicia Rodriguez, Shuaib Meacham, Stephen David, Carrie Wilson-Brown, Heriberto Godina, K. E. Supryia, and Ed Buendia, “Race, Suburban Resentment, and the Representation of the Inner City in Contemporary Film and Television,” in Cultural Studies: A Research Volume, Vol. 1, ed. Norman K. Denzin (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996), 121-40.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege, Color, and Crime: A Personal Account,” in Images of Color, Images of Crime: Readings, ed. Coramae Richey Mann and Marjorie S. Zatz (Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co., 1998), 207-216. [Orig. 1996]

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” Peace and Freedom (July/August, 1989): 10-12. Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” in Race: An Anthology in the First Person, ed. Bart Schneider (New York: Crown, 1997), 120-26.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” Working Paper No. 189 (Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1988). Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 70-81; Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 76-87; and Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 291-99.

Alice McIntyre, Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Patricia McKee, Producing American Races: Henry James, William Faulkner, Toni Morrison (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999).

Peter McLaren, “Decentering Whiteness: In Search of a Revolutionary Multiculturalism,” Multicultural Education 5, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 4-11.

Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “Learning in the Dark: How Assumptions of Whiteness Shape Classroom Knowledge,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 321-49.

Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “‘They Got the Paradigm and Painted It White’: Whiteness and Pedagogies of Positionality,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 137-58.

Biddy Martin and Chandra Talpade Mohanty, “Feminist Politics: What’s Home Got to Do with It?” in Feminist Studies, Critical Studies, ed. Teresa de Lauretis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 191-212.

George A. Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness,” in The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 175-79. Also: George A. Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness,” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 210-13. Also published in a somewhat different version as George A. Martinez, “The Legal Construction of Race: Mexican-Americans and Whiteness,” Harvard Latino Law Review 2, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 321-47.

Satya P. Mohanty, “Drawing the Color Line: Kipling and the Culture of Colonial Rule,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 311-43.

Dreama Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 177-97.

Tracy D. Morgan, “Pages of Whiteness: Race, Physique Magazines, and the Emergence of Public Gay Culture,” in Queer Studies: A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Anthology, ed. Brett Beemyn and Mickey Eliason (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 280-97.

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York: Vintage: Random House, 1992).

T. Muraleedharan, “Rereading Gandhi,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 60-85.

Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin, eds., Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999).

Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness as a Strategic Rhetoric,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 87-106. Originally published as Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness: A Strategic Rhetoric,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 81, no. 3 (August 1995): 291-309.

Sarah Neal, “Struggles with the Research Self: Reconciling Feminist Approaches to Antiracist Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 109-21.

Dana D. Nelson, National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Aldon L. Nielsen, Writing between the Lines: Race and Intertextuality (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1994).

Michael Novick, White Lies, White Power: The Fight against White Supremacy and Reactionary Violence (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986). Revised edition: Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

Vivian Gussin Paley, White Teacher (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Phyllis Palmer, Domesticity and Dirt: Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920-1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

Charmaine Perkins, “Any More Colorful We’d Have to Censor It,” in Radical In<ter>ventions: Identity, Politics, and Difference/s in Educational Praxis, ed. Suzanne de Castell and Mary Bryson (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 247-68.

Jeanne Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities,” West Coast Line 28, no. 13/14 (Spring/Fall 1994): 226-38. [Colour: An Issue, special double issue, ed. Roy Miki and Fred Wah]

Jeanne Perreault, “Writing Whiteness: Linda Griffiths’s Raced Subjectivity in The Book of Jessica,” in Essays on Canadian Writing 60 (Winter 1996): 14-31.

Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” in Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism, by Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984), 11-63.

Amira Proweller, “Shifting Identities in Private Education: Reconstructing Race at/in the Cultural Center,” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 776-808.

Race Traitor http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/ [Web version of journal]

Sherene H. Razack, Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

Adrienne Rich, “Disobedience Is What NWSA Is Potentially about” [Keynote Address: The NWSA Convention], Women’s Studies Quarterly 9, no. 3 (Fall 1981): 4-6.

Adrienne Rich, “Disloyal to Civilization: Feminism, Racism, Gynephobia,” in On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose 1966-1978 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1979), 275-310.

Troy Richardson and Sofia Villenas, “‘Other’ Encounters: Dances with Whiteness in Multicultural Education,” Educational Theory 50, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 255-73.

Diane Roberts, The Myth of Aunt Jemima: Representations of Race and Region (London: Routledge, 1994).

Nelson M. Rodriguez, “Emptying the Content of Whiteness: Toward an Understanding of the Relation between Whiteness and Pedagogy,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 31-62.

Nelson M. Rodriguez and Leila E. Villaverde, eds., Dismantling White Privilege: Pedagogy, Politics, and Whiteness (New York: Peter Lang, 2000).

Roberto Rodriguez, “The Study of Whiteness,” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 20-25.

David R. Roediger, Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (London: Verso, 1994).

David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1999). Revised version of David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991).

David R. Roediger, ed., Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White (New York: Schocken, 1998).

Michael Rogin, “Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures,” Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 1050-77.

Leslie G. Roman, “White Is a Color! White Defensiveness, Postmodernism, and Antiracist Pedagogy,” in Race, Identity and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 71-88.

Lillian Roybal Rose, “White Identity and Counseling White Allies about Racism,” in Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed., ed. Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996), 24-47.

Paula Rothenberg, Invisible Privilege: A Memoir about Race, Class, and Gender (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000).

Katheryn K. Russell, The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment, and Other Macroaggressions (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Karen Brodkin Sack, “How Did Jews Become White Folks?” in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 78-102.

George J. Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 388-94.

Chéla Sandoval, “Theorizing White Consciousness for a Post-Empire World: Barthes, Fanon, and the Rhetoric of Love,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 86-106.

Crispin Sartwell, Act Like You Know: African-American Autobiography and White Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Alexander Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (London: Verso, 1990).

Susan Scheckel, The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

James Joseph Scheurich, “A Difficult, Confusing, Painful Problem that Requires Many Voices, Many Perspectives,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 15-16.

James Joseph Scheurich, “Toward a White Discourse on White Racism,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 5-10.

James Joseph Scheurich and Michelle D. Young, “Coloring Epistemologies: Are Our Research Epistemologies Racially Biased?” Educational Researcher 26, no. 4 (May 1997): 4-16.

Mab Segrest, Memoir of a Race Traitor (Boston: South End Press, 1994).

Maxine Seller and Lois Weis, eds., Beyond Black and White: New Faces and Voices in U. S. Schools (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Carrie Jane Singleton, “Race and Gender in Feminist Theory,” SAGE 6, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 12-17.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Advancing a White Discourse: Response to Scheurich,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 13-15.

Christine E. Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 157-71.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Multicultural Education, Social Positionality, and Whiteness,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 135-53.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Reflections on My Use of Multicultural and Critical Pedagogy When Students Are White,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 117-34.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Resisting Racial Awareness: How Teachers Understand the Social Order from their Social Locations,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 65-89.

Christine E. Sleeter, “White Silence, White Solidarity,” Race Traitor 4 (Winter 1995): 14-22.

Raka Shome, “Race and Popular Cinema: The Rhetorical Strategies of Whiteness in City of Joy,” Communication Quarterly 44, no. 4 (Fall 1996): 502-518.

Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993).

Arthur K. Spears, ed., Race and Ideology: Language, Symbolism, and Popular Culture (Detroit: Wayne University Press, 1999).

Elizabeth V. Spelman, “‘Race’ and the Labor of Identity,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 202-15.

Lois Mark Stalvey, The Education of a WASP (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970).

Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman, “Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 72-103.

Sharon Stockton, “‘Blacks vs. Browns’: Questioning the White Ground,” College English 57, no. 2 (February 1995): 166-81.

Ronald Takaki, “The Tempest in the Wilderness: The Racialization of Savagery,” Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 892-912.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race (New York: Basic Books, 1997). Also: Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race, rev. ed. with a new introduction (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Talking about Race, Learning about Racism: The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom,” Harvard Educational Review 62, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 1-24.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teaching White Students about Racism: The Search for White Allies and the Restoration of Hope,” Teachers College Record 95, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 462-76.

Henry Louis Taylor, Jr., “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 395-408.

Susan Thistlethwaite, Sex, Race, and God: Christian Feminism in Black and White (New York: Crossroad, 1989/1991).

Audrey Thompson, “Colortalk: Whiteness and Off White,” Educational Studies 30, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 141-160.

Audrey Thompson, “[Essay Review of] Off White, edited by Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong,” Education Review (12 November, 1999) [on-line journal] http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm.

Audrey Thompson, “For: Anti-Racist Education,” Curriculum Inquiry 27, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 7-44.

Audrey Thompson, “A Modest Proposal for Preventing Philosophers of Education from Being a Burden to Their Students or Their Country; and for Making Them Beneficial to Their Publick,” Educational Foundations 12, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 67-71. Or see Audrey Thompson, “Against: Logical, linear, analytic forms of argumentation,” Alternative session of the Philosophy of Education Society, Boston, MA (March 1998). http://cuip.uchicago.edu/pes/debate_thompson.htm

Audrey Thompson, “Not the Color Purple: Black Feminist Lessons for Educational Caring,” Harvard Educational Review 68, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 522-54.

Becky Thompson, Mothering without a Compass: White Mother’s Love, Black Son’s Courage (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000).

Becky Thompson, “Time Traveling and Border Crossing: Reflections on White Identity,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 92-109.

Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi, eds., Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Era Bell Thompson, “Some of My Best Friends Are White,” in The WHITE Problem in America, ed. Ebony (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966), 153-158.

Connie Titone, “Educating the White Teacher As Ally,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 159-75.

Rodolfo D. Torres, Louis F. Mirón, and Jonathan Xavier Inda, eds., Race, Identity, and Citizenship (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 1999).

Barry Troyna, “‘The Whites of My Eyes, Nose, Ears . . .’: A Reflexive Account of ‘Whiteness’ in Race-Related Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 95-108.

France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren, eds., Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

France Winddance Twine, “Brown-Skinned White Girls: Class, Culture, and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 214-243.

Kathryn B. Ward, “‘Lifting as We Climb’: How Scholarship by and about Women of Color Has Shaped My Life as a White Feminist,” in Color, Class and Country: Experiences of Gender, ed. Gay Young and Bette J. Dickerson (London: Zed Books, 1994), 199-217.

Vron Ware, Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism, and History (London: Verso, 1991).

Vron Ware, “Island Racism: Gender, Place, and White Power,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 283-310.

John Warren, “Whiteness and Cultural Theory: Perspectives on Research and Education,” The Urban Review 31, no. 2 (June 1999): 185-203.

Chris Weedon, “Race, Racism and the Problem of Whiteness,” in Feminism, Theory and the Politics of Difference (Oxford: Blackwell Pub. Co., 1999), 152-177.

Lois Weis, Amira Proweller, and Craig Centrie, “Re-examining ‘A Moment in History’: Loss of Privilege inside White Working-Class Masculinity in the 1990s,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 210-26.

David T. Wellman, Portraits of White Racism, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). [orig. 1977]

David Wellman, “Minstrel Shows, Affirmative Action Talk, and Angry White Men: Marking Racial Otherness in the 1990s,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 311-331.

Jack E. White, “Prejudice? Perish the Thought,” Time 153, no. 9 (March 8, 1999): 36.

Whiteness Studies: Beyond the Pale http://www.uwm.edu/People/gjay/Whiteness/ [web site]

Robyn Wiegman, “Whiteness Studies and the Paradox of Particularity,” Boundary 2 vol. 26, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 115-50.

Stephanie M. Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness and Latina/o Critical Theory,” Harvard Latino Law Review 2, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 307-16. Reprinted as Stephanie M. Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness: The Case of Latinos(as)” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 323-26.

Stephanie M. Wildman, with Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne D. Davis, and Trina Grillo, Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Privilege Undermines America (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Walter E. Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 409-15. [against whiteness theory]

Howard Winant, “Behind Blue Eyes: Whiteness and Contemporary US Racial Politics,” New Left Review no. 225 (Sept./Oct. 1997): 73-88.

Carter Godwin Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1933/1972).

Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, eds., White Trash: Race and Class in America (New York: Routledge, 1997).

George Yúdice, “Neither Impugning nor Disavowing Whiteness Does a Viable Politics Make: The Limits of Identity Politics,” in After Political Correctness: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s, ed. Christopher Newfield and Ronald Strickland (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 255-85.
 


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