University of Utah
Whiteness Theory and Education
Fall 2005
Office: 308C MBH
Audrey Thompson
mailbox in 307 MBH
Office Hours:
ECS 6624-001 & 7624-001
voicemail: 587-7803
M 1:00-4:00 & Th 12:30-4:30 and by appt. 587-7814
meets M 4:35-7:35 p.m. in 233 OSH
e-mail:
http://www.pauahtun.org/audrey.html 

Overview

Whiteness theory is intended to make visible the race privileges that many whites take for granted, as well as white-normed cultural and political assumptions and practices that often are treated as universal. Although in many ways consistent with the aims of multicultural theory, whiteness theory is also distinct from mainstream multiculturalism. Multicultural theory usually seeks to foster an appreciation of cultures other than the dominant culture; in its more radical forms, multiculturalism also involves problematizing the assumptions of the dominant culture. But because mainstream multicultural approaches are concerned primarily with developing authentic understandings of non-dominant cultures, they usually do not concentrate on how white power operates to foster and maintain white privilege and dominance. (Indeed, some multicultural theorists charge that whiteness theory shifts the focus back to whites, and thus away from more pluralistic projects.) Whiteness theory focuses specifically on whiteness as a political and cultural position — a position and an identity that benefit (albeit in different ways) those designated as white or honorary white, at a cost to most people of color.

Because white cultural norms are systematically enforced in the schools (usually without any recognition that they are white-referenced norms), whiteness theory is particularly important for educators. A teacher (whether white or of color) who can deconstruct his or her own investments in whiteness is better positioned to see why prevailing pedagogical and curricular patterns might not work to alter inequitable relations. Even white teachers who are fully committed to multiculturalism often fail to see how their own investments in “universal” scholarly values may get in the way of their good intentions vis-a-vis students of color.

Among the topics with which the course will be concerned are the various analyses undertaken by whiteness theory, whiteness as epistemology, whiteness in relation to pedagogy, whiteness in relation to texts and the curriculum, and the politics of different approaches to whiteness education (such as “allies” and “race traitor” approaches).

This course is the prerequisite for ECS 6626/7626 (Whiteness Theory II: New Directions for Research and Pedagogy), to be offered in the spring. In this course, we examine theoretical analyses and arguments. Whiteness Theory II, as a praxis course, will apply the theories, methods, and principles studied in ECS 6624-7624 to classroom and research practices

Structure

The class will meet once a week, each time discussing the readings on the syllabus. To participate actively in class, it is essential that you read carefully, prepare questions, and jot down any issues you wish to discuss. I will make short presentations to provide necessary background information. My primary role, however, will be to ask questions, clarify points raised in our discussions, and summarize the important issues that we discuss.

Texts

Gordon’s book is on reserve at the first-floor reserve desk at the Marriott Library and is available for purchase from the University Bookstore. The articles will be on electronic reserve at the Marriott Library or, in a few cases, will be made available as handouts or as links on the electronic version of the syllabus.

Marriott Library electronic course reserves: https://tproxy01.lib.utah.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fereserve.lib.utah.edu%2fwebpac-1.2-bin%2fDoReserve

Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999).

Course Requirements

In addition to the assigned reading, regular attendance, and participation grounded in the readings, course requirements include one short (5-7 page) paper, and a longer final paper (12-15 pages). You will be required to turn in a good draft of the final paper two weeks before the final due date. There is no final exam.
 

Participation, attendance, participation, and in-class project:
20% of grade
Short Paper:
35% of grade
 Final paper:
45% of grade
 
For the short paper, you will be asked to provide an analysis of 1) a classroom situation in which you were either the teacher or the student, 2) a curriculum, 3) an article, textbook or chapter from a textbook, 4) policy, or 5) a popular culture text (movie, song, billboard ad, etc.) using one or more forms of whiteness theorizing. In developing your analysis, be sure to draw on at least three of the readings in detail.

The final paper should either examine some aspect of whiteness theory in depth (e.g., the limits and possibilities of whiteness conversion narratives, how whiteness pedagogy intersects with or jeopardizes multicultural pedagogy, or whether the “abolition of whiteness” is possible) or explore some implications of whiteness theorizing for an area of research to which so far it has not been much applied (e.g., children’s literature, ethics, medical education, higher education policy, or qualitative or quantitative research methodologies). If you choose the latter option, your paper may need to take into account two or three outside readings in order to do justice to your project. However, it should be distinctively a paper for this course, not a paper from another course that you have tweaked or padded with references to the course readings. The final paper must be centrally informed by the course readings, lectures, and discussions. Check the syllabus for dates to turn in a thesis statement, outline, and draft of the final paper.

Both papers must be vitally informed by the course discussions, lectures, activities, and readings. You should cite any references that inform your analysis; wherever possible, give specific page numbers, even if you are not citing the text directly. Other than that, it does not matter to me which citation system you use or whether you make up your own, as long as I can follow your system and can locate the passages you (should) have indicated. If you plan to write academic papers or a master’s or doctoral thesis, I encourage you to familiarize yourself with whatever citation format is most common in your field (e.g., MLA, Chicago, APA), as it is best to have made formal citation habits more or less automatic before you get to the thesis stage. However, this is up to you. For my purposes, it is enough that you indicate the relevant author and page numbers of any work on the syllabus (e.g., Pratt, 35-36). Please do provide full bibliographic information, however, for any outside readings upon which your paper draws.

Clarifications, Cautions, and Ground Rules

This course will require all of us to think critically about how we are mobilizing and reproducing particular forms of dominance and privilege, including race, class, culture, sexuality, nationality, and language. Our readings and discussions will focus on race and ethnicity, in particular (while recognizing that these are always caught up with other dimensions of identity and situatedness), and it is important that the analysis of race and racism not be displaced by or assimilated to a focus on class or gender or sexuality, for example. At the same time, the course focus on race and ethnicity does not authorize a dismissal of (let alone hostility to) analyses of other forms of oppression. Social justice education requires vigilance against all forms of oppression and marginalization, including sexism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, racism, xenophobia, and ableism. I would like for this to be a course in which students engage one another as co-learners and co-educators, which means developing a degree of trust and respect as well as, insofar as possible, creating an educational community. This expectation sets the course apart from a class in which the emphasis is on individual, consumer-type learning. The emphasis will be on the shared project of denormalizing forms of whiteness that exact a cost from people of color. Because we will have different understandings of and investments in that project, I will be setting some ground rules and also revisiting our shared expectations from time to time. At regular intervals, we will also talk about the classroom dynamics and how these might shift to address particular concerns.

My most general expectations are that 1) all of us will have read the texts closely and refer our discussion to the texts; 2) students should try to learn from others in the classroom, and, as far as possible, listen to one another from the perspective of educators and co-learners; 3) the learning of white students must not be privileged over the learning of students of color; 4) all students should frame their contributions to both large and small group work in such a way that they are not talking at people, lecturing them, or just holding forth; 5) we need to recognize that due to power asymmetries, the interactive roles will not always be the same for all students; 6) all of us need to pay attention to how various arguments and analyses are organized by master narratives or particular cultural codes and discourses; and 7) it is fine to get angry; it is not okay to be condescending or abusive. Don’t lose sight of the educational project in which we all share. Finally, and perhaps obviously, don’t use language that disparages or is disrespectful of groups of which you are not a part. (Language that is disrespectful is not the same as language that is imprecise; when questions arise as to whether a particular term is the most useful for an analysis, the answer will depend on the purpose of the particular analysis.) The principle of respect may seem obvious, but the practice will not always be obvious. Be prepared to revisit your practice.

For white teachers, it is important to see when and how white privilege matters and what can be done about it. This course will ask you to look at exactly how whiteness affects various relations and situations. Whiteness has an enormous organizing effect on other forms of power and privilege. Accordingly, we will be talking about how race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, and other positionalities interlock to create, maintain, and support white privilege. You will be asked to look at the nuances of relationships, at various privileging mechanisms, and at specific racialized patterns; it will not be enough to talk about privilege either in sweeping, absolute terms, or in terms that bracket whiteness as something. Thus, we will not be ranking the various kinds of privilege and oppression, but will be talking about race privilege in context. (If you were homeless, for instance, it might not be not much consolation to be a member of the elite category of straight white males — yet your whiteness might nevertheless be relevant to your chances of avoiding arrest, for example.)

Because whiteness is a social construction, whiteness and white privilege are not issues only for whites. Light-skin color privileges, English-language privileges, class, and “honorary white” privileges may be extended (usually only provisionally) to people of color as well, in particular cases. Moreover, questions of privilege connected to symbolic whiteness become particularly significant in academia, where objectivity, neutrality, discipline, and other values may be articulated to whiteness.

Whiteness theory does not address whiteness as a question of racial guilt or innocence based on skin color but as a system of privileges that is maintained discursively, institutionally, and materially (as well as in other ways). What this means is that all of us are likely to participate in maintaining the codes of whiteness in various ways. Even challenging others to be anti-racist, depending on how it’s done, can be a way of “proving” our own superiority and thus suggesting (for example) that we (often those of us who are progressive whites) are “good whites.” Be prepared to rethink some of the values and practices you think of as anti-racist.

For many white teachers, whiteness as privilege is a new idea and it is difficult to avoid being defensive. If you are new to the idea of white privilege, try to monitor your defensiveness about whiteness; on the other hand, if you are comfortable with talk about race privilege, remember how complex a process the development of that awareness is and how problematic your or anyone’s current understanding is likely to be. Complacency is often more of a dead-end than defensiveness is. Keep in mind that no one in academia, regardless of color, escapes whiteness altogether. Many of the values and privileges of whiteness are built into academic discourse. If you have made it this far, you are participating in some of the privileges of whiteness, even if you are a person of color.

I will be asking everyone to participate as educators and co-learners. If you lead with your ego, it’s hard to listen. Try to lead with an ear for possibilities you might not have considered without the group. If you have a different understanding of particular materials than do others in the class, make that understanding available to others without lecturing them. If you feel threatened by particular people in the class, think about how to address them so as to get past the impasse:  how can you teach them how you would like to learn from them? Thinking as educators means attending to the conditions of learning as well as to whether everyone is learning. This doesn’t mean that everyone should always be “nice,” but it does mean showing respect.

Regardless of your situation, it is likely that you will at times find yourself uncomfortable with the arguments and analyses you encounter in a course such as this, and in some cases you may find the theories intimidating. Not only are such experiences unavoidable but they are desirable insofar as they are part of unsettling what we think we know about ourselves and others. It takes time and study to move beyond anxious discomfort. While the course will not attempt to eliminate discomfort, it will try to make your discomfort interesting.
 

Schedule of Class Topics and Reading
 

Mon. 29 Aug. Introduction
Readings:
McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”
Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness: The Case of Latinos(as)”

Deconstructing whiteness in film: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?

Mon. 5 Sept. No Class: Labor Day

Mon. 12 Sept. Whiteness in Historical Perspective, I
Readings:
Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, pp. 1-200
Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History”
Younge, “Racism Rebooted: Philadelphia, Mississippi, Then and Now”

Deconstructing whiteness in documentaries: PBS’s The Civil War

Mon. 19 Sept. Whiteness in Historical Perspective, II
Readings:
Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, pp. 201-318
Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia”
Willhelm, “Equality: America’s Racist Ideology”
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness”

Mon. 26 Sept. White Privilege
Readings:
Bennett, “Tea and Sympathy: Liberals and Other White Hopes”
Ignatiev, “The Point is Not to Interpret Whiteness but to Abolish It,” found at http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/thepoint.html
Thompson, essay review found at http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm

Mon. 3 Oct. Material and Structural Whiteness Theorizing
Readings:
Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies”
Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz]”
Taylor, “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz]”
Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz]”
Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response]”

Mon. 10 Oct. Material and Embodied Whiteness Theorizing
Readings:
Baldwin, “Fifth Avenue, Uptown: A Letter from Harlem”
Alexie, “Tiny Treaties”
Moschkovich, “—But I Know You, American Woman”
McLeod, “‘Race,’ Writing, and the Politics of Public Disclosure”
Diamond, “This-Fellow Frog, Name Belong-Him Dakwo”
Diamond, “The Ethnobiologist’s Dilemma”

Mon. 17 Oct. Discursive Whiteness Theorizing
Readings:
hooks, “Gangsta Culture — Sexism and Misogyny: Who Will Take the Rap?”
Kidder, “Colonial Remnants: Assumptions of Privilege”
Hill, “Language, Race, and White Public Space”

Deconstructing whiteness in film: Tarzan and The Jungle Book

Mon. 24 Oct. Institutional Whiteness
Readings:
Gilmore, Smith, and Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle”
Mayo, “Civility and Its Discontents: Sexuality, Race, and the Lure of Beautiful Manners”
Pollock, “Race Wrestling: Struggling Strategically with Race in Educational Practice and Research”

Electronic handout summarizing whiteness theory frameworks:  http://www.pauahtun.org/Whiteness-Summary-1.html

Short paper due on Thursday 27 Oct. by 5 p.m.

Mon. 31 Oct. Struggling with White Identity
Readings:
Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart”
Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities”

Mon. 7 Nov. Reconstructing White Identity
Readings:
Helms, “Toward a Model of White Racial Identity Development”
Frye, “White Woman Feminist”
Thompson, “Tiffany, Friend of People of Color: White Investments in Antiracism”

Mon. 14 Nov. Teachers and Whiteness
Readings:
Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited”
Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race”
Sims, “Words by Heart: A Black Perspective”
Wilson-Beach and Beach, “Words by Heart: An Analysis of Its Theology”

In-class project: Bring to class an illustrated children’s book (fiction or biography) that includes people of different races or ethnicities but has a white person as at least one of its protagonists. The book doesn’t necessarily have to have race as its overt topic. (The six city libraries have good children’s book selections, or you may want to check the Marriott Library or your school library.) We will be deconstructing whiteness in children’s books during part of class, working in groups of two or three.

Deconstructing whiteness in children’s movies: Cinderella

Mon. 21 Nov. Whiteness and Pedagogy
Readings:
hooks, “Representations of Whiteness”
Torres, “The Virtues of Conflict: Challenging Dominant Culture and White Feminist Theory”
Duesterberg, “Rethinking Culture in the Pedagogy and Practices of Preservice Teachers”

Handout: Whiteness theory teaching tips

Brief sentence outlines and thesis statements for final papers due. Bring four copies to class, for small group discussion.

Mon. 28 Nov. Preparing Teachers
Readings:
Bennett, “Reading, ’Riting, and Racism”
Lawrence and Tatum, “Teachers in Transition: The Impact of Antiracist Professional Development on Classroom Practice”
Montecinos, “Multicultural Teacher Education for a Culturally Diverse Teaching Force”

Good drafts of final papers due on Wednesday

Mon. 5 Dec. Organizing Change
Readings:
Bailey, “Taking Responsibility for Community Violence”
Gitlin, Buendía, Crosland, and Doumbia, “The Production of Margin and Center: Welcoming/Unwelcoming of Immigrant Students”

Wed. 14 Dec. Final paper due by 5:00 p.m. (You may bring the paper to the main office, 307 MBH, or to my office, 308C MBH, or you may send it as an email attachment. If you do the latter, be sure to check back soon after to make sure that I was able to open the attachment.)

Selected Bibliography (includes course readings not in whiteness theory)

Critical Whiteness Studies, Whiteness Theory

William Aal, “Moving from Guilt to Action: Antiracist Organizing and the Concept of ‘Whiteness’ for Activism and the Academy,” in The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness, ed. Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Eric Klinenberg, Irene J. Nexica, and Matt Wray (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001), 294-310.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Fictions of Whiteness: Speaking the Names of Whiteness in U.S. Literature,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 35-59.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Now More than Ever: James Baldwin and the Critique of White Liberalism,” in James Baldwin Now, ed. Dwight A. McBride (New York: New York University Press, 1999), 56-74.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Thinking Again: This Bridge Called My Back and the Challenge to Whiteness,” in This Bridge We Call Home: Radical Visions for Transformation, ed. Gloria E. Anzaldúa and AnaLouise Keating (New York: Routledge, 2002), 69-77.

Luis M. Aguiar, “Whiteness in White Academia,” in Talking about Identity: Encounters in Race, Ethnicity, and Language, ed. Carl E. James and Adrienne Shadd (Toronto: Between the Lines, 2001), 177-92.

John Alberti, “The Nigger Huck: Race, Identity, and the Teaching of Huckleberry Finn,” College English 57, no. 8 (December 1995): 919-37.

Linda Martín Alcoff, “What Should White People Do?” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 6-26.

Sherman Alexie, “On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City,” in First Indian on the Moon (Brooklyn, NY: Hanging Loose Press, 1993), 79.

Sherman Alexie, “Tiny Treaties,” in First Indian on the Moon (Brooklyn, NY: Hanging Loose Press, 1993), 56-57.

Ricky Lee Allen, “The Globalization of White Supremacy: Toward a Critical Discourse on the Racialization of the World,” Educational Theory 51, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 467-85.

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control (London: Verso, 1994).

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (London: Verso, 1997).

W. B. Allen, “Response to a ‘White Discourse on Racism,’” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 11-13.

Tomás Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).

David Anthony, “Class, Culture, and the Trouble with White Skin in Hawthorne’s The House of Seven Gables,” The Yale Journal of Criticism 12, no. 2 (Fall 1999): 249-69.

Gloria Anzaldúa, “En Rapport, in Opposition: Cobrando Cuentas a las Nuestras,” in Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990), 142-48.

Barbara Applebaum, “Social Justice Education, Moral Agency, and the Subject of Resistance,” Educational Theory 54, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 59-72.

Barbara Applebaum, “White Privilege, Complicity, and the Social Construction of Race,” Educational Foundations 17, no. 4 (Fall 2003): 5-20.

Barbara Applebaum and Erin Stoik, “On the Meaning and Necessity of a White, Anti-Racist Identity,” in Philosophy of Education 2000, ed. Lynda Stone (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2001), 307-16.

Eric Arnesen, “Whiteness and the Historians’ Imagination,” International Labor and Working-Class History 60 (Fall 2001): 3-32.

Valerie Babb, Whiteness Visible: The Meaning of Whiteness in American Literature and Culture (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Alison Bailey, “Despising an Identity They Taught Me to Claim: Exploring a Dilemma of White Privilege Awareness,” in Whiteness: Feminist Philosophical Narratives, ed. Chris J. Cuomo and Kim Q. Hall (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 85-104.

Alison Bailey, “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character,” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 27-42.

Alison Bailey, “Privilege: Expanding on Marilyn Frye’s ‘Oppression’,” Journal of Social Philosophy 29, no. 3 (Winter 1998): 104-19.

Peter Bailey, “World without ‘White’,” [Fast Chat interview with Noel Ignatiev] Newsweek CXLII, no. 2 (July 14, 2003): 7.

James Baldwin, Collected Essays[: Notes of a Native Son, Nobody Knows My Name, The Fire Next Time, No Name in the Street, The Devil Finds Work, Other Essays], selected by Toni Morrison (New York: Library of America, 1998).

James Baldwin, Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son (New York: Dial Press, 1961).

James Baldwin, The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985).

James Baldwin, “Fifth Avenue, Uptown: A Letter from Harlem,” in Collected Essays (New York: Library of America, 1998), 170-79.

James Baldwin, “In Search of a Majority,” in Collected Essays (New York: Library of America, 1998), 215-21.

James Baldwin, “On Being ‘White’ . . . and Other Lies,” in Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White, ed. David R. Roediger (New York: Schocken, 1998), 177-180. [orig. published in Essence in 1984]

James Baldwin, “The Price of the Ticket,” in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985), ix-xx.

James Baldwin, “A Talk to Teachers,” in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985), 325-32.

Daniel Barnardi, The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of U. S. Cinema (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996).

Keith H. Basso, Portraits of “The Whiteman”: Linguistic Play and Cultural Symbols among the Western Apache, illus. Vincent Craig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Derrick Bell, “White Superiority in America: Its Legal Legacy, Its Economic Costs,” Villanova Law Review 33, no. 5 (September 1988): 767-79.

Robin M. Bennefield [interviewer], “Whiteness Studies: Deceptive or Welcome Discourse? [Karenga on Whiteness Studies],” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 26-27.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., The Challenge of Blackness (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1972).

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “Reading, ’Riting, and Racism,” in The Challenge of Blackness (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1972), 224-30.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “Tea and Sympathy: Liberals and Other White Hopes,” in The Negro Mood and Other Essays (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1964), 74-104.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “The White Problem in America,” in The Challenge of Blackness (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1972), 117-27.

Maurice Berger, White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999).

Amy Aldous Bergerson, “Critical Race Theory and White Racism: Is There Room for White Scholars in Fighting Racism in Education?” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 51-63.

Ann Berlak and Sekani Moyenda, Taking It Personally: Racism in the Classroom from Kindergarten to College (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001).

Bernita C. Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 45-51. With an appendix: Marsha Houston, “Why the Dialogues Are Difficult or 15 Ways a Black Woman Knows When a White Woman’s Not Listening” (52-55).

Peter Binzen, Whitetown, U.S.A. (New York: Vintage/Random House, 1970).

Kathleen M. Blee, “White on White: Interviewing Women in U.S. White Supremacist Groups,” in Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies, ed. France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 93-109.

Lawrence Blum, “Moral Asymmetries in Racism,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 79-97.

Lawrence Blum, “Race, Community and Moral Education: Kohlberg and Spielberg as Civic Educators,” Journal of Moral Education 28, no. 2 (1999): 125-43.

Lawrence Blum, “What Is ‘Racism’ in Anti-Racist Education?” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 860-80. [Essay review]

Albert Boime, The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990).

Alastair Bonnett, “Constructions of Whiteness in European and American Anti-Racism,” in Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and the Politics of Anti-Racism, ed. Pnina Werbner and Tariq Modood (London: Zed Books, 1997), 173-92.

Alastair Bonnett, “Geography, ‘Race’ and Whiteness: Invisible Traditions and Current Challenges,” Area 29, no. 3 (1997): 193-99.

Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996). Original edition: Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Pub., 1981). [Published in cooperation with the Institute for the Study of Contemporary Social Problems]

Wendy Webster Brandon, “Toward a White Teachers’ Guide to Playing Fair: Exploring the Cultural Politics of Multicultural Teaching,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 31-50.

Karen Brodkin, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says about Race in America (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, Impossible Purities: Blackness, Femininity, and Victorian Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, “Rereading Race and Gender: When White Women Matter” [book review of Beyond the Pale, by Vron Ware, White Women, Race Matters, by Ruth Frankenberg, and Memoir of a Race Traitor, by Mab Segrest], American Quarterly 48, no. 1 (March 1996): 153-60. Also online at http://www.press.jhu.edu/demo/american_quarterly/48.1br_ware.html

Cynthia Stokes Brown, Refusing Racism: White Allies and the Struggle for Civil Rights (New York: Teachers College Press, 2002).

Kimberly Nichele Brown, “Useful Anger: Confrontation and Challenge in the Teaching of Gender, Race, and Violence,” in Women Faculty of Color in the White Classroom, ed. Lucila Vargas (New York: Peter Lang, 2002), 89-107.

Michael K. Brown, Martin Carnoy, Elliott Currie, Troy Duster, David B. Oppenheimer, Marjorie M. Schultz, and David Wellman, White-Washing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

Mary Bucholtz, “The Whiteness of Nerds: Superstandard English Racial Markedness,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (June 2001): 84-100.

Mary Bucholtz and Sara Trechter, eds., Journal of Linguistic Anthropology [Special Issue: “Discourses of Whiteness”] 11, no. 1 (June 2001).

Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith, eds., Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984).

Melanie E. L. Bush, Breaking the Code of Good Intentions: Everyday Forms of Whiteness (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004).

Judith Butler, “Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia,” in Reading Rodney King, Reading Urban Uprising, ed. Robert Gooding-Williams (New York: Routledge, 1993), 15-22.

Keith Byerman, “W. E. B. Du Bois and the Construction of Whiteness,” in The Souls of Black Folk: One Hundred Years Later, ed. Dolan Hubbard (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003), 161-71.

Barbara Cameron, “‘Gee, You Don’t Seem like an Indian from the Reservation’,” in This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, ed. Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa (New York: Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981/1983), 46-52.

Hazel Carby, “Encoding White Resentment: Grand Canyon — A Narrative for Our Times,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 236-47.

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Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault, eds., White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998).

Joyce E. King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers,” The Journal of Negro Education 60, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 133-46.

Herbert Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited,” in Should We Burn Babar? Essays on Children’s Literature and the Power of Stories (New York: The New Press, 1995), 30-56.

Joel Kovel, White Racism: A Psychohistory (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970).

Joyce A. Ladner, ed., The Death of White Sociology (New York: Random House, 1973).

Julie Landsman, A White Teacher Talks about Race (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001).

Colleen L. Larson and Carlos J. Ovando, The Color of Bureaucracy: The Politics of Equity in Multicultural School Communities (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001).

Sandra M. Lawrence and Takiema Bunche, “Feeling and Dealing: Teaching White Students about Racial Privilege,” Teaching and Teacher Education 12, no. 5 (September 1996): 531-42.

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teachers in Transition: The Impact of Antiracist Professional Development on Classroom Practice,” Teachers College Record 99, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 162-78.

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “White Teachers as Allies: Moving from Awareness to Action,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 333-42.

Jane Lazarre, Beyond the Whiteness of Whiteness: Memoir of a White Mother of Black Sons (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996).

Julia Lesage, Abby L. Ferber, Debbie Storrs, and Donna Wong, Making a Difference: University Students of Color Speak Out (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).

Cynthia Levine-Rasky, ed., Working through Whiteness: International Perspectives (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002).

Amanda E. Lewis, “Some Are More Equal than Others: Lessons on Whiteness from School,” in White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism, ed. Ashley W. Doane and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (New York: Routledge, 2003), 159-72.

Amanda E. Lewis, “There Is No ‘Race’ in the Schoolyard: Color-blind Ideology in an (Almost) All-White School,” American Educational Research Journal 38, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 781-811.

George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998).

George Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies,” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 369-87.

George Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 416-27.

James W. Loewen, The Mississippi Chinese: Between Black and White (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971).

Ian F. Haney López, White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Audre Lorde, “Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference,” in Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1984), 114-23. [orig. 1980]

Audre Lorde, “An Open Letter to Mary Daly,” in Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1984), 66-71. [orig. 1979]

Eric Lott, “All the King’s Men: Elvis Impersonators and White Working-Class Masculinity,” in Race and the Subject of Masculinities, ed. Harry Stecopoulos and Michael Uebel (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 192-227.

Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “Learning in the Dark: How Assumptions of Whiteness Shape Classroom Knowledge,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 321-49.

Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “‘They Got the Paradigm and Painted It White’: Whiteness and Pedagogies of Positionality,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 137-58.

Biddy Martin and Chandra Talpade Mohanty, “Feminist Politics: What’s Home Got to Do with It?” in Feminist Studies, Critical Studies, ed. Teresa de Lauretis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 191-212.

George A. Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness,” in The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 175-79. Also published in a somewhat different version as George A. Martinez, “The Legal Construction of Race: Mexican-Americans and Whiteness,” Harvard Latino Law Review 2, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 321-47.

Sherry Marx and Julie Pennington, “Pedagogies of Critical Race Theory: Experimentations with White Preservice Teachers,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 91-110.

Cris Mayo, “The Binds that Tie: Civility and Social Difference,” Educational Theory 52, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 169-86.

Cris Mayo, “Civility and Its Discontents: Sexuality, Race, and the Lure of Beautiful Manners,” in Philosophy of Education 2001, ed. Suzanne Rice (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2002), 78-87.

Cris Mayo, “Vertigo at the Heart of Whiteness,” in Philosophy of Education 2000, ed. Lynda Stone (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2001), 317-20.

Cameron McCarthy, “Contradictions of Power and Identity: Whiteness Studies and the Call of Teacher Education,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 127-133.

Cameron McCarthy, Ed Buendía, Carol Mills, Shuaib Meacham, Heriberto Godina, Carrie Wilson-Brown, Maria Seferian, and Theresa Souchet, “The Last Rational Men: Citizenship, Morality, and the Pursuit of Human Perfection,” in Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, and Aaron D. Gresson III (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 251-64.

Cameron McCarthy, Alicia Rodriguez, Shuaib Meacham, Stephen David, Carrie Wilson-Brown, Heriberto Godina, K. E. Supryia, and Ed Buendia, “Race, Suburban Resentment, and the Representation of the Inner City in Contemporary Film and Television,” in Cultural Studies: A Research Volume, Vol. 1, ed. Norman K. Denzin (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996), 121-40.

Anne McClintock, “Soft-Soaping Empire: Commodity Racism and Imperial Advertising,” in Travellers’ Tales: Narratives of Home and Displacement, ed. George Robertson, Melinda Mash, Lisa Tickner, Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, and Tim Putnam (London: Routledge, 1994), 131-54.

Bonnie McElhinny, “See No Evil, Speak No Evil: White Police Officers’ Talk about Race and Affirmative Action,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (June 2001): 65-78.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege, Color, and Crime: A Personal Account,” in Images of Color, Images of Crime: Readings, ed. Coramae Richey Mann and Marjorie S. Zatz (Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co., 1998), 207-216. [Orig. 1996]

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” Peace and Freedom (July/August, 1989): 10-12. Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” in Race: An Anthology in the First Person, ed. Bart Schneider (New York: Crown, 1997), 120-26.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” Working Paper No. 189 (Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1988). Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 70-81.

Alice McIntyre, Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Alice McIntyre, “Exploring Whiteness and Multicultural Education with Prospective Teachers,” Curriculum Inquiry 32, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 31-49.

Alice McIntyre, “A Response to Rosa Hernández Sheets,” Educational Researcher 29, no. 9 (December 2000): 26-27.

Patricia McKee, Producing American Races: Henry James, William Faulkner, Toni Morrison (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999).

Peter McLaren, “Decentering Whiteness: In Search of a Revolutionary Multiculturalism,” Multicultural Education 5, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 4-11.

Alisea C. Williams McLeod, “‘Race,’ Writing, and the Politics of Public Disclosure,” College Composition and Communication 45, no. 3 (October 1994): 389-400.

Rebecca Meacham, “The Entanglements of Teaching Nappy Hair,” in Race in the College Classroom: Pedagogy and Politics, ed. Bonnie TuSmith and Maureen T. Reddy (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002), 71-83.

Jackson B. Miller, “‘Indians,’ ‘Braves,’ and ‘Redskins’: A Performative Struggle for Control of an Image,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 85, no. 2 (May 1999): 188-202.

Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997).

Charles W. Mills, “Revisionist Ontologies: Theorizing White Supremacy,” Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998), 97-118.

Charles W. Mills, “White Supremacy as Sociopolitical System: A Philosophical Perspective,” in White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism, ed. Ashley W. Doane and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (New York: Routledge, 2003), 35-48.

Satya P. Mohanty, “Drawing the Color Line: Kipling and the Culture of Colonial Rule,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 311-43.

Dreama Moon, “Racial Redemption and the White Southern Racial Conversion Narrative,” The Review of Communication 1 (2001): 97-102. [review of Fred Hobson, But Now I See] <http://www.natcom.org/ROC/one-one/moon.htm>

Dreama Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 177-97.

Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa, eds., This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981/1983).

Aileen Moreton-Robinson, Talkin’ Up to the White Woman: Indigenous Women and Feminism (St. Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 2000).

Aileen Moreton-Robinson, “Researching Whiteness: Some Reflections from an Indigenous Woman’s Standpoint,” Hecate 29, no. 2 (2003): 72-85.

Tracy D. Morgan, “Pages of Whiteness: Race, Physique Magazines, and the Emergence of Public Gay Culture,” in Queer Studies: A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Anthology, ed. Brett Beemyn and Mickey Eliason (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 280-97.

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York: Vintage: Random House, 1992).

Judit Moschkovich, “—But I Know You, American Woman,” in This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, ed. Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa (New York: Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1983), 79-84.

Martin Mull and Allen Rucker, The History of White People in America (New York: Perigee Books, 1985).

T. Muraleedharan, “Rereading Gandhi,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 60-85.

Albert Murray, “White Norms, Black Deviation,” in The Death of White Sociology, ed. Joyce A. Ladner (New York: Random House, 1973), 96-113.

Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin, eds., Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999).

Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness as a Strategic Rhetoric,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 87-106. Originally published as Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness: A Strategic Rhetoric,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 81, no. 3 (August 1995): 291-309.

Wolfgang Natter, “‘We Just Gotta Eliminate ’Em’: On Whiteness and Film in Matewan, Avalon, and Bulworth,” in Engaging Film: Geographies of Mobility and Identity, ed. Tim Cresswell and Deborah Dixon (Lanham, CO: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002), 246-70.

Sarah Neal, “Struggles with the Research Self: Reconciling Feminist Approaches to Antiracist Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 109-21.

Dana D. Nelson, National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Aldon L. Nielsen, Writing between the Lines: Race and Intertextuality (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1994).

Michael Novick, White Lies, White Power: The Fight against White Supremacy and Reactionary Violence (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

Eileen O’Brien, Whites Confront Racism: Antiracists and Their Paths to Action (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).

Eileen O’Brien, “The Political Is Personal: The Influence of White Supremacy on White Antiracists’ Personal Relationships,” in White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism, ed. Ashley W. Doane and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (New York: Routledge, 2003), 253-67.

Kimberly L. Oliver and Rosary Lalik, “‘The Beauty Walk’: Interrogating Whiteness as the Norm for Beauty within One School’s Hidden Curriculum,” in Body Knowledge and Control: Studies in the Sociology of Physical Education and Health, ed. John Evans, Brian Davies, and Jan Wright (Chicago: Human Kinetics, 2004): 115-29.

Ruth Anne Olson, “White Privilege in Schools,” in Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development, ed. Enid Lee, Deborah Menkart, and Margo Okazawa-Rey (Washington, DC: Teaching for Change, 1998/2002), 81-82.

Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986). Revised edition: Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

James M. O’Toole, Passing for White: Race, Religion, and the Healy Family, 1820-1920 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002).

Vivian Gussin Paley, White Teacher (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Phyllis Palmer, Domesticity and Dirt: Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920-1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

Phyllis Marynick Palmer, “White Women/Black Women: The Dualism of Female Identity and Experience in the United States,” Feminist Studies 9, no. 1 (Spring 1983): 151-70.

Thomas A. Parham, “White Researchers Conducting Multicultural Research: Can Their Efforts Be ‘Mo Betta’?” The Counseling Psychologist 21, no. 2 (April 1993): 250-56.

Ellen Pence, “Racism — A White Issue,” in All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women’s Studies, ed. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith (New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1982), 45-47.

Charmaine Perkins, “Any More Colorful We’d Have to Censor It,” in Radical In<ter>ventions: Identity, Politics, and Difference/s in Educational Praxis, ed. Suzanne de Castell and Mary Bryson (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 247-68.

Jeanne Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities,” West Coast Line 28, no. 13/14 (Spring/Fall 1994): 226-38. [Colour: An Issue, special double issue, ed. Roy Miki and Fred Wah]

Jeanne Perreault, “Writing Whiteness: Linda Griffiths’s Raced Subjectivity in The Book of Jessica,” in Essays on Canadian Writing 60 (Winter 1996): 14-31.

Adele Perry, “‘Fair Ones of a Purer Caste’: White Women and Colonialism in Nineteenth-Century British Columbia,” Feminist Studies 23, no. 3 (Fall 1997): 501-24.

Pamela Perry, Shades of White: White Kids and Racial Identities in High School (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).

Mica Pollock, “Race Wrestling: Struggling Strategically with Race in Educational Practice and Research,” American Journal of Education 111, no. 1 (November 2004): 25-67.

Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” in Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism, by Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984), 11-63.

Amira Proweller, “Shifting Identities in Private Education: Reconstructing Race at/in the Cultural Center,” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 776-808.

Benjamin Quarles, Allies for Freedom; Blacks on John Brown (New York: Da Capo Press, 2001).

Race Traitor <http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/> [Web version of journal]

Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Eric Klinenberg, Irene J. Nexica, and Matt Wray, eds., The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001).

Krista Ratcliffe, “Eavesdropping as Rhetorical Tactic: History, Whiteness, and Rhetoric,” JAC 20, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 87-119.

Sherene H. Razack, Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

Sherene H. Razack, ed., Race, Space, and the Law: Unmapping a White Settler Society (Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2002).

Adrienne Rich, “Disobedience Is What NWSA Is Potentially about” [Keynote Address: The NWSA Convention], Women’s Studies Quarterly 9, no. 3 (Fall 1981): 4-6.

Adrienne Rich, “Disloyal to Civilization: Feminism, Racism, Gynephobia,” in On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose 1966-1978 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1979), 275-310.

Beah Richards, “A Black Woman Speaks,” in A Black Woman Speaks and Other Poems (Los Angeles: Inner City Press, 1974), 29-36. [this poem was originally performed in Chicago, at a 1951 peace conference, where it won a prize]

John E. Richardson, “‘Now Is the Time to Put an End to All This’: Argumentative Discourse Theory and ‘Letters to the Editor’,” Discourse and Society 12, no. 2 (March 2001): 143-68.

Troy Richardson and Sofia Villenas, “‘Other’ Encounters: Dances with Whiteness in Multicultural Education,” Educational Theory 50, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 255-73.

Damien W. Riggs, editor, special issue, Borderlands [e-journal], Vol. 3, no. 2, 2004 <http://www.borderlandsejournal.adelaide.edu.au/issues/vol3no2.html>

Diane Roberts, The Myth of Aunt Jemima: Representations of Race and Region (London: Routledge, 1994).

Nelson M. Rodriguez, “Emptying the Content of Whiteness: Toward an Understanding of the Relation between Whiteness and Pedagogy,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 31-62.

Nelson M. Rodriguez and Leila E. Villaverde, eds., Dismantling White Privilege: Pedagogy, Politics, and Whiteness (New York: Peter Lang, 2000).

Roberto Rodriguez, “The Study of Whiteness,” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 20-25.

David R. Roediger, Colored White: Transcending the Racial Past (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).

David R. Roediger, Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (London: Verso, 1994).

David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1999). Revised version of David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991).

David R. Roediger, Working toward Whiteness: How America’s Immigrants Became White: The Strange Journey from Ellis Island to the Suburbs (New York: Basic Books, 2005).

David R. Roediger, ed., Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White (New York: Schocken, 1998).

David Roediger, “White Workers, New Democrats, and Affirmative Action,” in The House that Race Built, ed. Wahneema Lubiano (New York: Vintage, 1998), 48-65.

Michael Rogin, “Blackface, White Noise: The Jewish Jazz Singer Finds His Voice,” Critical Inquiry 18, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 417-53.

Michael Rogin, “Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures,” Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 1050-77.

Leslie G. Roman, “White Is a Color! White Defensiveness, Postmodernism, and Antiracist Pedagogy,” in Race, Identity and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 71-88.

Lillian Roybal Rose, “White Identity and Counseling White Allies about Racism,” in Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed., ed. Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996), 24-47.

Paula Rothenberg, Invisible Privilege: A Memoir about Race, Class, and Gender (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000).

Paula S. Rothenberg, ed., White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism (New York: Worth Publishers, 2002).

Mary Aickin Rothschild, “White Women Volunteers in the Freedom Summers: Their Life and Work in a Movement for Social Change,” Feminist Studies 5, no. 3 (Fall 1979): 466-95.

Katheryn K. Russell, The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment, and Other Macroaggressions (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Ann Russo, “‘We Cannot Live without Our Lives’: White Women, Antiracism, and Feminism,” in Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), 297-313.

Karen Brodkin Sack, “How Did Jews Become White Folks?” in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 78-102.

George J. Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 388-94.

Chéla Sandoval, “Theorizing White Consciousness for a Post-Empire World: Barthes, Fanon, and the Rhetoric of Love,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 86-106.

Crispin Sartwell, Act Like You Know: African-American Autobiography and White Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Alexander Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (London: Verso, 1990).

Susan Scheckel, The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

James Joseph Scheurich, “A Difficult, Confusing, Painful Problem that Requires Many Voices, Many Perspectives,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 15-16.

James Joseph Scheurich, “Toward a White Discourse on White Racism,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 5-10.

James Joseph Scheurich and Michelle D. Young, “Coloring Epistemologies: Are Our Research Epistemologies Racially Biased?” Educational Researcher 26, no. 4 (May 1997): 4-16.

James Joseph Scheurich and Michelle D. Young, “White Racism among White Faculty: From Critical Understanding to Antiracist Activism,” in The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education: Continuing Challenges for the Twenty-First Century, rev. ed., ed. William A. Smith, Philip G. Altbach, and Kofi Lomotey (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), 221-42.

Carol Schick, “‘By Virtue of Being White’: Resistance in Anti-Racist Pedagogy,” Race Ethnicity and Education 3, no. 1 (February 2000): 83-102.

Carol Schick, “Keeping the Ivory Tower White: Discourses of Racial Domination,” in Race, Space, and the Law: Unmapping a White Settler Society, ed. Sherene H. Razack (Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2002), 99-119.

Mab Segrest, Memoir of a Race Traitor (Boston: South End Press, 1994).

Maxine Seller and Lois Weis, eds., Beyond Black and White: New Faces and Voices in U. S. Schools (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Rosa Hernández Sheets, “Advancing the Field or Taking Center Stage: The White Movement in Multicultural Education,” Educational Researcher 29, no. 9 (December 2000): 15-21.

Rosa Hernández Sheets, “Competency vs. Good Intentions: Diversity Ideologies and Teacher Potential,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 111-120.

Raka Shome, “Race and Popular Cinema: The Rhetorical Strategies of Whiteness in City of Joy,” Communication Quarterly 44, no. 4 (Fall 1996): 502-518.

John Shuford, “Four Du Boisian Contributions to Critical Race Theory,” Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 37, no. 3 (Summer 2001): 301-37.

Rudine Sims, “Words by Heart: A Black Perspective,” Interracial Books for Children Bulletin 11, no. 7 (1980): 12-15, 17.

Carrie Jane Singleton, “Race and Gender in Feminist Theory,” SAGE 6, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 12-17.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Advancing a White Discourse: Response to Scheurich,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 13-15.

Christine E. Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 157-71.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Multicultural Education, Social Positionality, and Whiteness,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 135-53.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Reflections on My Use of Multicultural and Critical Pedagogy When Students Are White,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 117-34.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Resisting Racial Awareness: How Teachers Understand the Social Order from their Social Locations,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 65-89.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Teaching Whites about Racism,” in Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development, ed. Enid Lee, Deborah Menkart, and Margo Okazawa-Rey (Washington, DC: Teaching for Change, 1998/2002), 36-44.

Christine E. Sleeter, “White Silence, White Solidarity,” Race Traitor 4 (Winter 1995): 14-22.

Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993).

Lillian Smith, Killers of the Dream (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1949). Also: Lillian Smith, Killers of the Dream, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1961).

Ruth Smith, White Man’s Burden: A Personal Testament (New York: The Vanguard Press, 1946).

Arthur K. Spears, ed., Race and Ideology: Language, Symbolism, and Popular Culture (Detroit: Wayne University Press, 1999).

Elizabeth V. Spelman, “‘Race’ and the Labor of Identity,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 202-15.

Tyler Stallings, ed., Whiteness, A Wayward Construction (Laguna Beach, CA: Laguna Art Museum, 2003).

Lois Mark Stalvey, The Education of a WASP (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970).

Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman, “Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 72-103.

Sharon Stockton, “‘Blacks vs. Browns’: Questioning the White Ground,” College English 57, no. 2 (February 1995): 166-81.

Tyler Stovall, “National Identity and Shifting Imperial Frontiers: Whiteness and the Exclusion of Colonial Labor after World War I,” Representations 84 (2004): 52-72.

Ronald Takaki, “The Tempest in the Wilderness: The Racialization of Savagery,” Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 892-912.

Raphaël Tardon, “Richard Wright Tells Us: The White Problem in the United States,” trans. Keneth Kinnamon, in Conversations with Richard Wright, ed. Keneth Kinnamon and Michel Fabre (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993), 99-105. Originally published in Paris in Action (24 October, 1946): 10-11.

William Tate, “The ‘Race’ to Theorize Education: Who Is My Neighbor?” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 121-126.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race (New York: Basic Books, 1997). Also: Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race, rev. ed. with a new introduction (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Talking about Race, Learning about Racism: The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom,” Harvard Educational Review 62, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 1-24.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teaching White Students about Racism: The Search for White Allies and the Restoration of Hope,” Teachers College Record 95, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 462-76.

Henry Louis Taylor, Jr., “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 395-408.

Robert W. Terry, For Whites Only (Detroit: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1970).

Thandeka, Learning to Be White: Money, Race, and God in America (New York: Continuum, 1999).

Susan Thistlethwaite, Sex, Race, and God: Christian Feminism in Black and White (New York: Crossroad, 1989/1991).

Audrey Thompson, “Anti-Racist Work Zones,” in Philosophy of Education 2003, ed. Kal Alston (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2004), 387-95.

Audrey Thompson, “Colortalk: Whiteness and Off White,” Educational Studies 30, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 141-60.

Audrey Thompson, “Entertaining Doubts: Enjoyment and Ambiguity in White, Antiracist Classrooms,” in Passion and Pedagogy: Relation, Creation, and Transformation in Teaching, ed. Elijah Mirochnik and Debora C. Sherman (New York: Peter Lang, 2002), 431-52.

Audrey Thompson, “[Essay Review of] Off White, edited by Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong,” Education Review (12 November, 1999) [on-line journal] <http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm>.

Audrey Thompson, “For: Anti-Racist Education,” Curriculum Inquiry 27, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 7-44.

Audrey Thompson, “Gentlemanly Orthodoxy: Critical Race Feminism, Whiteness Theory, and the APA Manual,” Educational Theory 54, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 27-57.

Audrey Thompson, “A Modest Proposal for Preventing Philosophers of Education from Being a Burden to Their Students or Their Country; and for Making Them Beneficial to Their Publick,” Educational Foundations 12, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 67-71. Or see Audrey Thompson, “Against: Logical, linear, analytic forms of argumentation,” Alternative session of the Philosophy of Education Society, Boston, MA (March 1998).  <http://cuip.net/pes/debate_thompson.htm>

Audrey Thompson, “Not the Color Purple: Black Feminist Lessons for Educational Caring,” Harvard Educational Review 68, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 522-54.

Audrey Thompson, “Tiffany, Friend of People of Color: White Investments in Antiracism,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 7-29.

Becky Thompson, Mothering without a Compass: White Mother’s Love, Black Son’s Courage (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000).

Becky Thompson, A Promise and a Way of Life: White Antiracist Activism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001).

Becky Thompson, “Time Traveling and Border Crossing: Reflections on White Identity,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 92-109.

Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi, eds., Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Cooper Thompson, Emmett Schaefer, and Harry Brod, White Men Challenging Racism: 35 Personal Stories (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003).

Era Bell Thompson, “Some of My Best Friends Are White,” in The WHITE Problem in America, ed. Ebony (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966), 153-58.

Connie Titone, “Educating the White Teacher As Ally,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 159-75.

Edén E. Torres, “The Virtues of Conflict: Challenging Dominant Culture and White Feminist Theory,” in Chicana without Apology/Chicana sin vergüenza: The New Chicana Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 2003), 129-44.

Rodolfo D. Torres, Louis F. Mirón, and Jonathan Xavier Inda, eds., Race, Identity, and Citizenship (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 1999).

Sara Trechter and Mary Bucholtz, “Introduction: White Noise: Bringing Language into Whiteness,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (June 2001): 3-21.

Ann M. Trousdale, “A Submission Theology for Black Americans: Religion and Social Action in Prize-Winning Children’s Books about the Black Experience in America,” Research in the Teaching of English 24, no. 2 (May 1990), 117-40.

Barry Troyna, “‘The Whites of My Eyes, Nose, Ears . . .’: A Reflexive Account of ‘Whiteness’ in Race-Related Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 95-108.

Bonnie TuSmith and Maureen T. Reddy, eds., Race in the College Classroom: Pedagogy and Politics (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002).

France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren, eds., Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

France Winddance Twine, “Brown-Skinned White Girls: Class, Culture, and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 214-43. Originally: France Winddance Twine, “Brown-Skinned Girls, White Girls: Class, Culture, and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities,” Gender, Place, and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 3 (July 1996): 205-24.

Tamara L. Underiner, “Beyond Recognition, Beholden: Toward a Pedagogy of Privilege,” Signs 25, no. 4 (Summer 2000): 1293-98.

Lynet Uttal, “Inclusion without Influence: The Continuing Tokenism of Women of Color,” in Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990), 42-45.

Lucila Vargas, ed., Women Faculty of Color in the White Classroom: Narratives on the Pedagogical Implications of Teacher Diversity (New York: Peter Lang, 2002).

Hernán Vera and Andrew M. Gordon, eds., Screen Saviors: Hollywood Fictions of Whiteness (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).

Gayle Wald, “The Vestments and Investments of Race,” American Quarterly 52, no. 2 (June 2000): 371-80. [Review of Race Men, by Hazel Carby, and The Possessive Investment in Whiteness, by George Lipsitz]

Kathryn B. Ward, “‘Lifting as We Climb’: How Scholarship by and about Women of Color Has Shaped My Life as a White Feminist,” in Color, Class and Country: Experiences of Gender, ed. Gay Young and Bette J. Dickerson (London: Zed Books, 1994), 199-217.

Vron Ware, Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism and History (London: Verso, 1992).

Vron Ware, “Island Racism: Gender, Place, and White Power,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 283-310.

Vron Ware and Les Back, Out of Whiteness: Color, Politics, and Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).

John Warren, “Whiteness and Cultural Theory: Perspectives on Research and Education,” The Urban Review 31, no. 2 (June 1999): 185-203.

John T. Warren, Performing Purity: Whiteness, Pedagogy, and the Reconstitution of Power (New York: Peter Lang, 2003).

John T. Warren, “Performing Whiteness Differently: Rethinking the Abolitionist Project,” Educational Theory 51, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 451-66.

Jonathan W. Warren, “Masters in the Field: White Talk, White Privilege, White Biases,” in Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies, ed. France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 135-64.

Jonathan W. Warren and France Winddance Twine, “White Americans, the New Minority? Non-Blacks and the Ever-Expanding Boundaries of Whiteness,” Journal of Black Studies 28, no. 2 (November 1997): 200-18.

Chris Weedon, “Race, Racism and the Problem of Whiteness,” in Feminism, Theory and the Politics of Difference (Oxford: Blackwell Pub. Co., 1999), 152-177.

Lois Weis, Amira Proweller, and Craig Centrie, “Re-examining ‘A Moment in History’: Loss of Privilege inside White Working-Class Masculinity in the 1990s,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 210-26.

David T. Wellman, Portraits of White Racism, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). [orig. 1977]

David Wellman, “Minstrel Shows, Affirmative Action Talk, and Angry White Men: Marking Racial Otherness in the 1990s,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 311-31.

Robert St. Martin Westley, “White Normativity and the Rhetoric of Equal Protection,” in Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed. Lewis R. Gordon (New York: Routledge, 1997), 91-98.

Jack E. White, “Prejudice? Perish the Thought,” Time 153, no. 9 (March 8, 1999): 36.

Whiteness Studies: Beyond the Pale <http://www.uwm.edu/People/gjay/Whiteness/> [web site]

Whiteness Theory [web mailing list]. <http://www.pauahtun.org/mailman/listinfo/whitenesstheory>

Robyn Wiegman, “Whiteness Studies and the Paradox of Particularity,” Boundary 2 vol. 26, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 115-50.

Stephanie M. Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness and Latina/o Critical Theory,” Harvard Latino Law Review 2, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 307-16.

Stephanie M. Wildman, with Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne D. Davis, and Trina Grillo, Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Privilege Undermines America (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Sidney M. Willhelm, “Equality: America’s Racist Ideology,” in The Death of White Sociology, ed. Joyce A. Ladner (New York: Random House, 1973), 136-57.

Patricia J. Williams, “The Ethnic Scarring of American Whiteness,” in The House that Race Built, ed. Wahneema Lubiano (New York: Vintage, 1998), 253-63.

Walter E. Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 409-15. [against whiteness theory]

John S. Wills, “Who Needs Multicultural Education? White Students, U.S. History, and the Construction of a Usable Past,” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 27, no. 3 (September 1996): 365-89.

Fay Wilson-Beach and Glyger G. Beach, “Words by Heart: An Analysis of Its Theology,” Interracial Books for Children Bulletin 11, no. 7 (1980): 16-17.

Howard Winant, “Behind Blue Eyes: Whiteness and Contemporary US Racial Politics,” New Left Review no. 225 (Sept./Oct. 1997): 73-88.

Tim Wise, White like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son (New York: Soft Skull Press, 2005).

Tim Wise, “Columbine High: Blinded by the White,” Z Magazine 12, no. 6 (June 1999): 4-7.

L. Mun Wong, “Di(s)-secting and Dis(s)-closing ‘Whiteness’: Two Tales about Psychology,” in Shifting Identities, Shifting Racisms: A Feminism and Psychology Reader, ed. Kum-Kum Bhavnani and Ann Phoenix (London: Sage, 1994), 133-53.

Merle Woo, “Letter to Ma,” in This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, ed. Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa (New York: Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981/1983), 140-47.

Carter Godwin Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1933/1972).

Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, eds., White Trash: Race and Class in America (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Richard Wright, White Man, Listen! (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books/Doubleday & Co., 1964). Originally: Richard Wright, White Man, Listen! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1957).

George Yancy, “Feminism and the Subtext of Whiteness: Black Women’s Experiences as a Site of Identity Formation and Contestation of Whiteness,” The Western Journal of Black Studies 24, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 156-66.

George Yancy, ed., What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question (New York: Routledge, 2004).

George Yancy, ed., White on White/Black on Black (Lanham, MD: Rowman & LIttlefield, 2005).

Michelle Young and Jerry Rosiek, “Interrogating Whiteness,” Educational Researcher 29, no. 2 (March 2000): 39-44. [Review of White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America]

Robert Young, White Mythologies: Writing History and the West (London: Routledge, 1990).

Gary Younge, “Racism Rebooted: Philadelphia, Mississippi, Then and Now,” The Nation 281, no. 2 (July 11, 2005): 11, 13-14.

George Yúdice, “Neither Impugning nor Disavowing Whiteness Does a Viable Politics Make: The Limits of Identity Politics,” in After Political Correctness: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s, ed. Christopher Newfield and Ronald Strickland (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 255-85.

Naomi Zack, “White Ideas,” in Whiteness: Feminist Philosophical Narratives, ed. Chris J. Cuomo and Kim Q. Hall (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 77-84.



 
 
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