University of Utah

Whiteness Theory and Education

Fall 2003
Office: 308C MBH
Audrey Thompson
mailbox: 307 MBH
Office Hours:
M 1:00-4:30 & Th 1:00-5:30 and by appt. 
ECS 6624-001 & 7624-001
meets M 4:35-7:35 p.m in 104 MBH
phone: 587-7814
voicemail: 587-7803
e-mail:
http://www.pauahtun.org/audrey.html
 

Overview

Whiteness theory is intended to make white cultural and political assumptions and privileges visible so that whites do not assume that their own position is neutral or normal. Although in many ways consistent with the aims of multicultural theory, whiteness theory is also distinct from mainstream multiculturalism. Multicultural theory usually seeks to foster an appreciation of cultures other than the dominant culture; in its more radical forms, multiculturalism also involves problematizing the assumptions of the dominant culture. But because mainstream multicultural approaches are concerned primarily with developing authentic understandings of non-dominant cultures, they usually do not concentrate on how white power operates to foster and maintain white privilege. (Indeed, some multicultural theorists charge that whiteness theory shifts the focus back to whites, and thus away from more pluralistic projects.) Whiteness theory focuses specifically on whiteness as a political and cultural position — a position and an identity that, to a considerable extent, are gained at the expense of people of color.

Because white cultural norms are systematically enforced in the schools (usually without any recognition that they are white norms), whiteness theory is particularly important for educators. A teacher who can deconstruct his or her own whiteness is far better positioned to see why prevailing pedagogical and curricular patterns might not work for students. Even white teachers who are fully committed to multiculturalism often fail to see how their own investments in white culture as a universal culture get in the way of their good intentions vis-a-vis students of color.

Among the topics with which the course will be concerned are the various analyses undertaken by whiteness theory, whiteness as epistemology, whiteness in relation to pedagogy, whiteness in relation to texts and the curriculum, and the politics of different approaches to whiteness education (such as “allies” and “race traitor” approaches).

Structure

The class will meet once a week, each time discussing the readings on the syllabus. To participate actively in class, it is essential that you read carefully, prepare questions, and jot down any issues you wish to discuss. I will make short presentations to provide necessary background information. My primary role, however, will be to ask questions, clarify points raised in our discussions, and summarize the important issues that we discuss.

Texts

The articles will be available for purchase as a bound collection from Empire Publishing or in a few cases as handouts or as links on the electronic version of the syllabus. The two books are available from the University Bookstore. The books and articles will also be on reserve or on electronic reserve (in the case of most of the articles) at the University Library.

Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999).

Janet E. Helms, A Race Is a Nice Thing to Have: A Guide to Being a White Person or Understanding the White Persons in Your Life (Topeka, KS: Content Communications, 1992).

Readings packet available from Empire Publishing

Course Requirements

In addition to the assigned reading, regular attendance, and participation grounded in the readings, course requirements include one short (5-7 page) paper, and a longer final paper (12-15 pages). You will be required to turn in a good draft of the final paper two weeks before the final due date. There is no final exam.

Participation, attendance, process drama, and in-class project: 20% of grade
Short Paper: 35% of grade Final paper: 45% of grade

For the short paper, you will be asked to provide an analysis of 1) a classroom situation in which you were either the teacher or the student, 2) a curriculum, 3) an article, textbook or chapter from a textbook, 4) policy, or 5) a popular culture text (movie, song, billboard ad, etc.) using one or more forms of whiteness theorizing. In developing your analysis, be sure to draw on at least three of the readings in detail.

The final paper should either examine some aspect of whiteness theory in depth (e.g., the limits and possibilities of whiteness conversion narratives, how whiteness pedagogy intersects with or jeopardizes multicultural pedagogy, or whether the “abolition of whiteness” is possible) or explore some implications of whiteness theorizing for an area of research to which so far it has not been much applied (e.g., children’s literature, ethics, medical education, higher education policy, or qualitative or quantitative research methodologies). If you choose the latter option, your paper may need to take into account two or three outside readings in order to do justice to your project. However, it should be distinctively a paper for this course, not a paper from another course that you have tweaked or padded with references to the course readings. The final paper must be centrally informed by the course readings, lectures, and discussions. Check the syllabus for dates to turn in a thesis statement, outline, and draft of the final paper.

Both papers must be vitally informed by the course discussions, lectures, activities, and readings. You should cite any references that inform your analysis; wherever possible, give specific page numbers, even if you are not citing the text directly. Other than that, it does not matter to me which citation system you use or whether you make up your own, as long as I can follow your system and can locate the passages you (should) have indicated. If you plan to write academic papers or a master’s or doctoral thesis, I encourage you to familiarize yourself with whatever citation format is most common in your field (e.g., MLA, Chicago, APA), as it is best to have made formal citation habits more or less automatic before you get to the thesis stage. However, this is up to you. For my purposes, it is enough that you indicate the relevant author and page numbers of any work on the syllabus (e.g., Pratt, 35-36). Please do provide full bibliographic information, however, for any outside readings upon which your paper draws.

Clarifications, Cautions, and Ground Rules

For white teachers, it is important to see when and how white privilege matters and what can be done about it. This course will ask you to look at exactly how whiteness affects various relations and situations. Whiteness has an enormous organizing effect on other forms of power and privilege. Accordingly, we will be talking about how race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, and other positionalities interlock to create, maintain, and support white privilege. You will be asked to look at the nuances of relationships, at various privileging mechanisms, and at specific racialized patterns; it will not be enough to talk about privilege in sweeping or absolute terms. Thus, we will not be ranking the various kinds of privilege and oppression, but will be talking about race privilege in context. (If you were homeless, for instance, it might not be not much consolation to be a member of the elite category of straight white males — yet your whiteness might nevertheless be relevant to your chances of avoiding arrest, for example.)

Because whiteness is a social construction, whiteness and white privilege are not issues only for whites. Light-skin color privileges, English-language privileges, class, and “honorary white” privileges may be extended (usually only provisionally) to people of color as well, in particular cases. Moreover, questions of privilege connected to symbolic whiteness become particularly significant in academia, where objectivity, neutrality, discipline, and other values may be articulated to whiteness.

Whiteness theory does not address whiteness as a question of racial guilt or innocence based on skin color but as a system of privileges that is maintained discursively, institutionally, and materially (as well as in other ways). What this means is that all of us are likely to participate in maintaining the codes of whiteness in various ways. Even challenging others to be anti-racist, depending on how it’s done, can be a way of “proving” our own superiority and thus suggesting (for example) that we (often those of us who are progressive whites) are “good whites.” Be prepared to rethink some of the values and practices you think of as anti-racist.

For many white teachers, whiteness as privilege is a new idea and it is difficult to avoid being defensive. If you are new to the idea of white privilege, try to monitor your defensiveness about whiteness; on the other hand, if you are comfortable with talk about race privilege, remember how complex a process the development of that awareness is and how problematic your or anyone’s current understanding is likely to be. Complacency is often more of a dead-end than defensiveness is. Keep in mind that no one in academia, regardless of color, escapes whiteness altogether. Many of the values and privileges of whiteness are built into academic discourse. If you have made it this far, you are participating in some of the privileges of whiteness, even if you are a person of color.

I will be asking everyone to think like educators: if you feel that you have a better or different understanding of particular materials than do others in the class, see if you can make that understanding available to others without lecturing them. If you feel threatened by particular people in the class, think about how to address them so as to get past the impasse: how can you teach them how you would like to learn from them? Thinking as educators means attending to the conditions of learning as well as to whether everyone is learning. This doesn’t mean that no one can ever get angry or that everyone should always be “nice,” but it does mean showing respect.

Regardless of your situation, it is likely that you will at times find yourself uncomfortable with the arguments and analyses you encounter in a course such as this, and in some cases you may find the theories intimidating. Not only are such experiences unavoidable but they are desirable insofar as they are part of unsettling what we think we know about ourselves and others. It takes time and study to move beyond anxious discomfort. While the course will not attempt to eliminate discomfort, it will try to make your discomfort interesting.
 

Schedule of Class Topics and Reading

Mon. 25 Aug. Introduction
Readings:
McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”
Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness: The Case of Latinos(as)”
Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism”

Deconstructing whiteness in film: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?

Mon. 1 Sept. No Class: Labor Day

Mon. 8 Sept. Whiteness in Historical Perspective, I
Readings:
Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, pp. 1-200
Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History”

Deconstructing whiteness in documentaries: PBS’s The Civil War

Mon. 15 Sept. Whiteness in Historical Perspective, II
Readings:
Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, pp. 201-318
Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia”
Willhelm, “Equality: America’s Racist Ideology”
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness”

Mon. 22 Sept. White Privilege
Readings:
Bennett, “Tea and Sympathy: Liberals and Other White Hopes”
Ignatiev, “The Point is Not to Interpret Whiteness but to Abolish It,” found at
http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/thepoint.html
Thompson, Essay Review

Deconstructing whiteness in documentaries: PBS’s John Brown

Mon. 29 Sept. Material Whiteness Theorizing
Readings:
Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies”
Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz]”
Taylor, “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz]”
Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz]”
Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response]”

Mon. 6 Oct. Discursive Whiteness Theorizing, Pt. I
Readings:
Kidder, “Colonial Remnants: Assumptions of Privilege”
Richardson, “‘Now Is the Time to Put an End to All This’: Argumentative Discourse Theory and ‘Letters to the Editor’”
Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’”

Mon. 13 Oct. Discursive Whiteness Theorizing, Pt. II
Readings:
hooks, “Gangsta Culture — Sexism and Misogyny: Who Will Take the Rap?”
Rogin, “Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures”
Carby, “Encoding White Resentment: Grand Canyon — A Narrative for Our Times”

Deconstructing whiteness in film: Tarzan and The Jungle Book

Mon. 20 Oct. Institutional Whiteness
Readings:
Gilmore, Smith, and Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle”
Larson, “Is the Land of Oz an Alien Nation? A Sociopolitical Study of School Community Conflict”
Mayo, “Civility and Its Discontents: Sexuality, Race, and the Lure of Beautiful Manners”

Electronic handout summarizing whiteness theory frameworks:
http://www.pauahtun.org/Whiteness-Summary-1.html

Short paper due.

Mon. 27 Oct. Struggling with White Identity
Readings:
Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart”
Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities”

Mon. 3 Nov. Reconstructing White Identity
Readings:
Helms, A Race Is a Nice Thing to Have
Frye, “White Woman Feminist”
Thompson, “Tiffany, Friend of People of Color: White Investments in Antiracism”

Process drama with Prof. Dave Dynak, Theater Dept.

Mon. 10 Nov. Teachers and Whiteness
Readings:
Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited”
Kailin, “How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in ‘Liberal’ Lakeview”
Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race”

In-class project: Bring to class an illustrated children’s book (fiction or biography) that includes people of different races or ethnicities but has a white person as at least one of its protagonists. The book doesn’t necessarily have to have race as its overt topic. (The six city libraries have good children’s book selections, or you may want to check the Marriott Library or your school library.) We will be deconstructing whiteness in children’s books during part of class, working in groups of two or three.

Deconstructing whiteness in children’s movies: Cinderella

Mon. 17 Nov. Whiteness and Pedagogy
Readings:
hooks, “Representations of Whiteness”
Hytten and Warren, “Engaging Whiteness: How Racial Power Gets Reified in Education”
Meacham, “The Entanglements of Teaching Nappy Hair

Brief sentence outlines and thesis statements for final papers due. Bring four copies to class, for small group discussion.

Mon. 24 Nov. Preparing Teachers
Readings:
Bennett, “Reading, ’Riting, and Racism”
King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers”
Lawrence and Tatum, “Teachers in Transition: The Impact of Antiracist Professional Development on Classroom Practice”

Good drafts of final papers due on Wednesday

Mon. 1 Dec. Organizing Change
Readings:
Bailey, “Taking Responsibility for Community Violence”
Gitlin, Buendía, Crosland, and Doumbia, “The Production of Margin and Center: Welcoming/Unwelcoming of Immigrant Students”

Wed. 10 Dec. Final paper due by 5:00 p.m. (You may bring the paper to the main office, 307 MBH, or to my office, 308C MBH, or you may send it as an email attachment. If you do the latter, be sure to check back soon after to make sure that I was able to open the attachment.)

Selected Bibliography
Whiteness Studies, Whiteness Theory

William Aal, “Moving from Guilt to Action: Antiracist Organizing and the Concept of ‘Whiteness’ for Activism and the Academy,” in The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness, ed. Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Eric Klinenberg, Irene J. Nexica, and Matt Wray (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001), 294-310.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Fictions of Whiteness: Speaking the Names of Whiteness in U.S. Literature,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 35-59.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Now More than Ever: James Baldwin and the Critique of White Liberalism,” in James Baldwin Now, ed. Dwight A. McBride (New York: New York University Press, 1999), 56-74.

Rebecca Aanerud, “Thinking Again: This Bridge Called My Back and the Challenge to Whiteness,” in This Bridge We Call Home: Radical Visions for Transformation, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa and AnaLouise Keating (New York: Routledge, 2002), 69-77.

John Alberti, “The Nigger Huck: Race, Identity, and the Teaching of Huckleberry Finn,” College English 57, no. 8 (December 1995): 919-37.

Linda Martín Alcoff, “What Should White People Do?” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 6-26. Reprinted in: Linda Martín Alcoff, “What Should White People Do?” in Decentering the Center: Philosophy for a Multicultural, Postcolonial, and Feminist World, ed. Uma Narayan and Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 262-82.

Ricky Lee Allen, “The Globalization of White Supremacy: Toward a Critical Discourse on the Racialization of the World,” Educational Theory 51, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 467-85.

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control (London: Verso, 1994).

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (London: Verso, 1997).

W. B. Allen, “Response to a ‘White Discourse on Racism,’” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 11-13.

Tomás Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).

Gloria Anzaldúa, “En Rapport, in Opposition: Cobrando Cuentas a las Nuestras,” in Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990), 142-48.

Barbara Applebaum and Erin Stoik, “On the Meaning and Necessity of a White, Anti-Racist Identity,” in Philosophy of Education 2000, ed. Lynda Stone (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 2001), 307-16.

Valerie Babb, Whiteness Visible: The Meaning of Whiteness in American Literature and Culture (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Alison Bailey, “Despising an Identity They Taught Me to Claim: Exploring a Dilemma of White Privilege Awareness,” in Whiteness: Feminist Philosophical Narratives, ed. Chris J. Cuomo and Kim Q. Hall (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 85-104.

Alison Bailey, “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character,” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 27-42. Reprinted in: Alison Bailey, “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character,” in Decentering the Center: Philosophy for a Multicultural, Postcolonial, and Feminist World, ed. Uma Narayan and Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 283-98.

Alison Bailey, “Privilege: Expanding on Marilyn Frye’s ‘Oppression’,” Journal of Social Philosophy 29, no. 3 (Winter 1998): 104-19.

Peter Bailey, “World without ‘White’,” [Fast Chat interview with Noel Ignatiev] Newsweek CXLII, no. 2 (July 14, 2003): 7.

James Baldwin, Collected Essays[: Notes of a Native Son, Nobody Knows My Name, The Fire Next Time, No Name in the Street, The Devil Finds Work, Other Essays], selected by Toni Morrison (New York: Library of America, 1998).

James Baldwin, The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985).

James Baldwin, “On Being ‘White’ . . . and Other Lies,” in Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White, ed. David R. Roediger (New York: Schocken, 1998), 177-180. [orig. published in Essence in 1984]

James Baldwin, “The Price of the Ticket,” in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985), ix-xx.

James Baldwin, “A Talk to Teachers,” in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985), 325-32.

Daniel Barnardi, The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of U. S. Cinema (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996).

Keith H. Basso, Portraits of “The Whiteman”: Linguistic Play and Cultural Symbols among the Western Apache, illus. Vincent Craig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Derrick Bell, “White Superiority in America: Its Legal Legacy, Its Economic Costs,” Villanova Law Review 33, no. 5 (September 1988): 767-79.

Robin M. Bennefield [interviewer], “Whiteness Studies: Deceptive or Welcome Discourse? [Karenga on Whiteness Studies],” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 26-27.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “Reading, ’Riting, and Racism,” in The Challenge of Blackness (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1972), 224-30. [orig. 1968]

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “Tea and Sympathy: Liberals and Other White Hopes,” in The Negro Mood and Other Essays (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1964), 74-104.

Lerone Bennett, Jr., “The White Problem in America,” in The Challenge of Blackness (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1972), 117-27.

Maurice Berger, White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999).

Amy Aldous Bergerson, “Critical Race Theory and White Racism: Is There Room for White Scholars in Fighting Racism in Education?” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 51-63.

Ann Berlak and Sekani Moyenda, Taking It Personally: Racism in the Classroom from Kindergarten to College (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001).

Bernita C. Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 45-51. With an appendix: Marsha Houston, “Why the Dialogues Are Difficult or 15 Ways a Black Woman Knows When a White Woman’s Not Listening” (52-55).

Kathleen M. Blee, “White on White: Interviewing Women in U.S. White Supremacist Groups,” in Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies, ed. France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 93-109.

Lawrence Blum, “Moral Asymmetries in Racism,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 79-97.

Lawrence Blum, “Race, Community and Moral Education: Kohlberg and Spielberg as Civic Educators,” Journal of Moral Education 28, no. 2 (1999): 125-43.

Lawrence Blum, “What Is ‘Racism’ in Anti-Racist Education?” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 860-80. [Essay review]

Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996). Original edition: Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Pub., 1981). [Published in cooperation with the Institute for the Study of Contemporary Social Problems]

Wendy Webster Brandon, “Toward a White Teachers’ Guide to Playing Fair: Exploring the Cultural Politics of Multicultural Teaching,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 31-50.

Karen Brodkin, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says about Race in America (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, Impossible Purities: Blackness, Femininity, and Victorian Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, “Rereading Race and Gender: When White Women Matter” [book review of Beyond the Pale, by Vron Ware, White Women, Race Matters, by Ruth Frankenberg, and Memoir of a Race Traitor, by Mab Segrest], American Quarterly 48, no. 1 (March 1996): 153-60. Also online at http://www.press.jhu.edu/demo/american_quarterly/48.1br_ware.html

Cynthia Stokes Brown, Refusing Racism: White Allies and the Struggle for Civil Rights (New York: Teachers College Press, 2002).

Mary Bucholtz, “The Whiteness of Nerds: Superstandard English Racial Markedness,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (June 2001): 84-100.

Mary Bucholtz and Sara Trechter, eds., Journal of Linguistic Anthropology [Special Issue: “Discourses of Whiteness”] 11, no. 1 (June 2001).

Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith, eds., Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984).

Judith Butler, “Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia,” in Reading Rodney King, Reading Urban Uprising, ed. Robert Gooding-Williams (New York: Routledge, 1993), 15-22.

Hazel Carby, “Encoding White Resentment: Grand Canyon — A Narrative for Our Times,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 236-47.

Hazel V. Carby, “The Multicultural Wars,” in Black Popular Culture: A Project by Michele Wallace, ed. Gina Dent (Seattle: Bay Press, 1992), 187-99.

Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain, ed. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham (London: Hutchinson, 1982), 212-235. Reprinted as Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in Cultures in Babylon: Black Britain and African America (London: Verso, 1999), 67-92; also: Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader, ed. Houston A. Baker, Jr., Manthia Diawara, and Ruth H. Lindeborg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 61-86; and in a shortened version as Hazel V. Carby, “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in Black British Feminism: A Reader, ed. Heidi Safia Mirza (London: Routledge, 1997), 45-53.

Robert T. Carter, “White Racial Identity,” in The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995), 100-14.

Sarah Carter, Capturing Women: The Manipulation of Cultural Imagery in Canada’s Prairie West (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997).

Vicki K. Carter, “Computer-Assisted Racism: Toward an Understanding of ‘Cyberwhiteness,’” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 269-83.

Center for the Study of White American Culture [Web site] http://www.euroamerican.org/

Angie Chabram-Dernersesian, “On the Social Construction of Whiteness within Selected Chicana/o Discourses,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 107-164.

Virginia Chalmers, “White Out: Multicultural Performances in a Progressive School,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 66-78.

Kimberly Christensen, “‘With Whom Do You Believe Your Lot Is Cast?’: White Feminists and Racism,” Signs 22, no. 3 (Spring 1997): 617-48.

Ward Churchill, “White Studies: The Intellectual Imperialism of U. S. Higher Education,” in Beyond Comfort Zones in Multiculturalism: Confronting the Politics of Privilege, ed. Sandra Jackson and José Solís (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1995), 17-35.

Christine Clark and James O’Donnell, eds., Becoming and Unbecoming White: Owning and Disowning a Racial Identity (Westport, CT: Begin & Garvey, 1999).

Marilyn Cochran-Smith, “Uncertain Allies: Understanding the Boundaries of Race and Teaching,” Harvard Educational Review 65, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 541-70.

Phil Cohen, “Laboring under Whiteness,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 244-82.

Dalton Conley, Honky (New York: Vintage, 2000).

Tia Cross, Freada Klein, Barbara Smith, and Beverly Smith, “Face-to-Face, Day-to-Day — Racism, CR,” in All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women’s Studies, ed. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith (New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1982), 52-56.

Chris J. Cuomo and Kim Q. Hall, eds., Whiteness: Feminist Philosophical Narratives (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999).

Renée R. Curry, White Women Writing White: H. D., Elizabeth Bishop, Sylvia Plath, and Whiteness (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000).

Victoria Davion, “Reflections on the Meaning of White [Response to Frye],” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 135-39.

Jane Davis, The White Image in the Black Mind: A Study of African American Literature (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000).

Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, eds., Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997).

Philip J. Deloria, Playing Indian (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).

Vine Deloria, Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (New York: Avon, 1969). Also: Vine Deloria, Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988).

Louise Derman-Sparks and Carol Brunson Phillips, Teaching/Learning Anti-Racism: A Developmental Approach (New York: Teachers College Press, 1997).

Mary Dilg, “Response to Rosa Hernández Sheets’s Review of Race and Culture,” Educational Researcher, 29, no. 9 (December 2000), 24-26.

Nadine Dolby, “Making White: Constructing Race in a South African High School,” Curriculum Inquiry 32, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 7-29.

Virginia R. Dominguez, White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986).

W. E. B. Du Bois, An ABC of Color (New York: International Publishers, 1989). [Orig. 1963]

W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 (Philadelphia: Albert Saifer, 1935 [reprinted Harcourt, Brace & Co.]). Reprinted as Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 (New York: Atheneum, 1992).

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Robert Jensen, “White Privilege Shapes the U.S.,” Baltimore Sun (July 19, 1998); reprinted at http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~rjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm

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Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “Learning in the Dark: How Assumptions of Whiteness Shape Classroom Knowledge,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 321-49.

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Cameron McCarthy, Alicia Rodriguez, Shuaib Meacham, Stephen David, Carrie Wilson-Brown, Heriberto Godina, K. E. Supryia, and Ed Buendia, “Race, Suburban Resentment, and the Representation of the Inner City in Contemporary Film and Television,” in Cultural Studies: A Research Volume, Vol. 1, ed. Norman K. Denzin (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996), 121-40.

Bonnie McElhinny, “See No Evil, Speak No Evil: White Police Officers’ Talk about Race and Affirmative Action,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (June 2001): 65-78.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege, Color, and Crime: A Personal Account,” in Images of Color, Images of Crime: Readings, ed. Coramae Richey Mann and Marjorie S. Zatz (Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co., 1998), 207-216. [Orig. 1996]

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” Peace and Freedom (July/August, 1989): 10-12. Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” in Race: An Anthology in the First Person, ed. Bart Schneider (New York: Crown, 1997), 120-26.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” Working Paper No. 189 (Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1988). Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 70-81; Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, 2nd ed., ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 76-87; and Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 291-99.

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Alice McIntyre, “Exploring Whiteness and Multicultural Education with Prospective Teachers,”Curriculum Inquiry 32, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 31-49.

Alice McIntyre, “A Response to Rosa Hernández Sheets,” Educational Researcher, 29, no. 9 (December 2000), 26-27.

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Charles W. Mills, “Revisionist Ontologies: Theorizing White Supremacy,” Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998), 97-118.

Satya P. Mohanty, “Drawing the Color Line: Kipling and the Culture of Colonial Rule,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 311-43.

Dreama Moon, “Racial Redemption and the White Southern Racial Conversion Narrative,” The Review of Communication 1 (2001): 97-102. [review of Fred Hobson, But Now I See] http://www.natcom.org/ROC/one-one/moon.htm

Dreama Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 177-97.

Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa, eds., This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981/1983).

Tracy D. Morgan, “Pages of Whiteness: Race, Physique Magazines, and the Emergence of Public Gay Culture,” in Queer Studies: A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Anthology, ed. Brett Beemyn and Mickey Eliason (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 280-97.

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York: Vintage: Random House, 1992).

Martin Mull and Allen Rucker, The History of White People in America (New York: Perigee Books, 1985).

T. Muraleedharan, “Rereading Gandhi,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 60-85.

Albert Murray, “White Norms, Black Deviation,” in The Death of White Sociology, ed. Joyce A. Ladner (New York: Random House, 1973), 96-113.

Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin, eds., Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999).

Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness as a Strategic Rhetoric,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 87-106. Originally published as Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness: A Strategic Rhetoric,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 81, no. 3 (August 1995): 291-309.

Wolfgang Natter, “‘We Just Gotta Eliminate ’Em’: On Whiteness and Film in Matewan, Avalon, and Bulworth,” in Engaging Film: Geographies of Mobility and Identity, ed. Tim Cresswell and Deborah Dixon (Lanham, CO: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002), 246-70.

Sarah Neal, “Struggles with the Research Self: Reconciling Feminist Approaches to Antiracist Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 109-21.

Dana D. Nelson, National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Aldon L. Nielsen, Writing between the Lines: Race and Intertextuality (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1994).

Michael Novick, White Lies, White Power: The Fight against White Supremacy and Reactionary Violence (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

Eileen O’Brien, Whites Confront Racism: Antiracists and Their Paths to Action (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).

Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986). Revised edition: Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

James M. O’Toole, Passing for White: Race, Religion, and the Healy Family, 1820-1920 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002).

Vivian Gussin Paley, White Teacher (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Phyllis Palmer, Domesticity and Dirt: Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920-1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

Thomas A. Parham, “White Researchers Conducting Multicultural Research: Can Their Efforts Be ‘Mo Betta’?” The Counseling Psychologist 21, no. 2 (April 1993): 250-56.

Ellen Pence, “Racism — A White Issue,” in All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women’s Studies, ed. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith (New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1982), 45-47.

Charmaine Perkins, “Any More Colorful We’d Have to Censor It,” in Radical In<ter>ventions: Identity, Politics, and Difference/s in Educational Praxis, ed. Suzanne de Castell and Mary Bryson (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 247-68.

Jeanne Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities,” West Coast Line 28, no. 13/14 (Spring/Fall 1994): 226-38. [Colour: An Issue, special double issue, ed. Roy Miki and Fred Wah]

Jeanne Perreault, “Writing Whiteness: Linda Griffiths’s Raced Subjectivity in The Book of Jessica,” in Essays on Canadian Writing 60 (Winter 1996): 14-31.

Pamela Perry, Shades of White: White Kids and Racial Identities in High School (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).

Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” in Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism, by Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984), 11-63. Also: Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” Rebellion: Essays 1980-1991 (Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books, 1991), 27-81.

Amira Proweller, “Shifting Identities in Private Education: Reconstructing Race at/in the Cultural Center,” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 776-808.

Race Traitor http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/ [Web version of journal]

Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Eric Klinenberg, Irene J. Nexica, and Matt Wray, eds., The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001).

Sherene H. Razack, Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

Sherene H. Razack, ed., Race, Space, and the Law: Unmapping a White Settler Society (Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2002).

Adrienne Rich, “Disobedience Is What NWSA Is Potentially about” [Keynote Address: The NWSA Convention], Women’s Studies Quarterly 9, no. 3 (Fall 1981): 4-6.

Adrienne Rich, “Disloyal to Civilization: Feminism, Racism, Gynephobia,” in On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose 1966-1978 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1979), 275-310.

John E. Richardson, “‘Now Is the Time to Put an End to All This’: Argumentative Discourse Theory and ‘Letters to the Editor’,” Discourse and Society 12, no. 2 (March 2001): 143-68.

Troy Richardson and Sofia Villenas, “‘Other’ Encounters: Dances with Whiteness in Multicultural Education,” Educational Theory 50, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 255-73.

Diane Roberts, The Myth of Aunt Jemima: Representations of Race and Region (London: Routledge, 1994).

Nelson M. Rodriguez, “Emptying the Content of Whiteness: Toward an Understanding of the Relation between Whiteness and Pedagogy,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 31-62.

Nelson M. Rodriguez and Leila E. Villaverde, eds., Dismantling White Privilege: Pedagogy, Politics, and Whiteness (New York: Peter Lang, 2000).

Roberto Rodriguez, “The Study of Whiteness,” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 20-25.

David R. Roediger, Colored White: Transcending the Racial Past (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).

David R. Roediger, Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (London: Verso, 1994).

David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1999). Revised version of David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991).

David R. Roediger, ed., Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White (New York: Schocken, 1998).

David Roediger, “White Workers, New Democrats, and Affirmative Action,” in The House that Race Built, ed. Wahneema Lubiano (New York: Vintage, 1998), 48-65.

Michael Rogin, “Blackface, White Noise: The Jewish Jazz Singer Finds His Voice,” Critical Inquiry 18, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 417-53.

Michael Rogin, “Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures,” Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 1050-77.

Leslie G. Roman, “White Is a Color! White Defensiveness, Postmodernism, and Antiracist Pedagogy,” in Race, Identity and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 71-88.

Lillian Roybal Rose, “White Identity and Counseling White Allies about Racism,” in Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed., ed. Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996), 24-47.

Paula Rothenberg, Invisible Privilege: A Memoir about Race, Class, and Gender (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000).

Paula Rothenberg, ed., White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism (New York: Worth Publishers, 2002).

Katheryn K. Russell, The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment, and Other Macroaggressions (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Karen Brodkin Sack, “How Did Jews Become White Folks?” in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 78-102.

George J. Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 388-94.

Chéla Sandoval, “Theorizing White Consciousness for a Post-Empire World: Barthes, Fanon, and the Rhetoric of Love,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 86-106.

Crispin Sartwell, Act Like You Know: African-American Autobiography and White Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Alexander Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (London: Verso, 1990).

Susan Scheckel, The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

James Joseph Scheurich, “A Difficult, Confusing, Painful Problem that Requires Many Voices, Many Perspectives,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 15-16.

James Joseph Scheurich, “Toward a White Discourse on White Racism,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 5-10.

James Joseph Scheurich and Michelle D. Young, “Coloring Epistemologies: Are Our Research Epistemologies Racially Biased?” Educational Researcher 26, no. 4 (May 1997): 4-16.

James Joseph Scheurich and Michelle D. Young, “White Racism among White Faculty: From Critical Understanding to Antiracist Activism,” in The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education: Continuing Challenges for the Twenty-First Century, rev. ed., ed. William A. Smith, Philip G. Altbach, and Kofi Lomotey (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), 221-42.

Carol Schick, “‘By Virtue of Being White’: Resistance in Anti-Racist Pedagogy,” Race Ethnicity and Education 3, no. 1 (February 2000): 83-102.

Carol Schick, “Keeping the Ivory Tower White: Discourses of Racial Domination,” in Race, Space, and the Law: Unmapping a White Settler Society, ed. Sherene H. Razack (Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2002), 99-119.

Mab Segrest, Memoir of a Race Traitor (Boston: South End Press, 1994).

Maxine Seller and Lois Weis, eds., Beyond Black and White: New Faces and Voices in U. S. Schools (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Rosa Hernández Sheets, “Advancing the Field or Taking Center Stage: The White Movement in Multicultural Education,” Educational Researcher, 29, no. 9 (December 2000), 15-21.

Rosa Hernández Sheets, “Competency vs. Good Intentions: Diversity Ideologies and Teacher Potential,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 111-120.

Raka Shome, “Race and Popular Cinema: The Rhetorical Strategies of Whiteness in City of Joy,” Communication Quarterly 44, no. 4 (Fall 1996): 502-518.

Carrie Jane Singleton, “Race and Gender in Feminist Theory,” SAGE 6, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 12-17.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Advancing a White Discourse: Response to Scheurich,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 13-15.

Christine E. Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 157-71.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Multicultural Education, Social Positionality, and Whiteness,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 135-53.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Reflections on My Use of Multicultural and Critical Pedagogy When Students Are White,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 117-34.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Resisting Racial Awareness: How Teachers Understand the Social Order from their Social Locations,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 65-89.

Christine E. Sleeter, “White Silence, White Solidarity,” Race Traitor 4 (Winter 1995): 14-22.

Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993).

Arthur K. Spears, ed., Race and Ideology: Language, Symbolism, and Popular Culture (Detroit: Wayne University Press, 1999).

Elizabeth V. Spelman, “‘Race’ and the Labor of Identity,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 202-15.

Lois Mark Stalvey, The Education of a WASP (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970).

Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman, “Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 72-103.

Sharon Stockton, “‘Blacks vs. Browns’: Questioning the White Ground,” College English 57, no. 2 (February 1995): 166-81.

Ronald Takaki, “The Tempest in the Wilderness: The Racialization of Savagery,” Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (December 1992): 892-912.

Raphaël Tardon, “Richard Wright Tells Us: The White Problem in the United States,” trans. Keneth Kinnamon, in Conversations with Richard Wright, ed. Keneth Kinnamon and Michel Fabre (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993), 99-105. Originally published in Paris in Action (24 October, 1946): 10-11.

William Tate, “The ‘Race’ to Theorize Education: Who Is My Neighbor?” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 121-126.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race (New York: Basic Books, 1997). Also: Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race, rev. ed. with a new introduction (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Talking about Race, Learning about Racism: The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom,” Harvard Educational Review 62, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 1-24.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teaching White Students about Racism: The Search for White Allies and the Restoration of Hope,” Teachers College Record 95, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 462-76.

Henry Louis Taylor, Jr., “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 395-408.

Thandeka, Learning to Be White: Money, Race, and God in America (New York: Continuum, 1999).

Susan Thistlethwaite, Sex, Race, and God: Christian Feminism in Black and White (New York: Crossroad, 1989/1991).

Audrey Thompson, “Colortalk: Whiteness and Off White,” Educational Studies 30, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 141-160.

Audrey Thompson, “Entertaining Doubts: Enjoyment and Ambiguity in White, Antiracist Classrooms.” in Passion and Pedagogy: Relation, Creation, and Transformation in Teaching, ed. Elijah Mirochnik and Debora C. Sherman (New York: Peter Lang, 2002), 431-52.

Audrey Thompson, “[Essay Review of] Off White, edited by Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong,” Education Review (12 November, 1999) [on-line journal] http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm

Audrey Thompson, “For: Anti-Racist Education,” Curriculum Inquiry 27, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 7-44.

Audrey Thompson, “Not the Color Purple: Black Feminist Lessons for Educational Caring,” Harvard Educational Review 68, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 522-54.

Audrey Thompson, “Tiffany, Friend of People of Color: White Investments in Antiracism,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 16, no. 1 (January-February, 2003): 7-29.

Becky Thompson, Mothering without a Compass: White Mother’s Love, Black Son’s Courage (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000).

Becky Thompson, A Promise and a Way of Life: White Antiracist Activism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001).

Becky Thompson, “Time Traveling and Border Crossing: Reflections on White Identity,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 92-109.

Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi, eds., Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Era Bell Thompson, “Some of My Best Friends Are White,” in The WHITE Problem in America, ed. Ebony (Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co., 1966), 153-58.

Connie Titone, “Educating the White Teacher As Ally,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 159-75.

Rodolfo D. Torres, Louis F. Mirón, and Jonathan Xavier Inda, eds., Race, Identity, and Citizenship (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 1999).

Sara Trechter and Mary Bucholtz, “Introduction: White Noise: Bringing Language into Whiteness,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (June 2001): 3-21.

Barry Troyna, “‘The Whites of My Eyes, Nose, Ears . . .’: A Reflexive Account of ‘Whiteness’ in Race-Related Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 95-108.

Bonnie TuSmith and Maureen T. Reddy, eds., Race in the College Classroom: Pedagogy and Politics (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002).

France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren, eds., Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

France Winddance Twine, “Brown-Skinned White Girls: Class, Culture, and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 214-243.

Tamara L. Underiner, “Beyond Recognition, Beholden: Toward a Pedagogy of Privilege,” Signs 25, no. 4 (Summer 2000): 1293-98.

Lynet Uttal, “Inclusion without Influence: The Continuing Tokenism of Women of Color,” in Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990), 42-45.

Lucila Vargas, ed., Women Faculty of Color in the White Classroom: Narratives on the Pedagogical Implications of Teacher Diversity (New York: Peter Lang, 2002).

Kathryn B. Ward, “‘Lifting as We Climb’: How Scholarship by and about Women of Color Has Shaped My Life as a White Feminist,” in Color, Class and Country: Experiences of Gender, ed. Gay Young and Bette J. Dickerson (London: Zed Books, 1994), 199-217.

Vron Ware, Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism and History (London: Verso, 1992).

Vron Ware, “Island Racism: Gender, Place, and White Power,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 283-310.

Vron Ware and Les Back, Out of Whiteness: Color, Politics, and Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).

John Warren, “Whiteness and Cultural Theory: Perspectives on Research and Education,” The Urban Review 31, no. 2 (June 1999): 185-203.

John T. Warren, Performing Purity: Whiteness, Pedagogy, and the Reconstitution of Power (New York: Peter Lang, 2003).

John T. Warren, “Performing Whiteness Differently: Rethinking the Abolitionist Project,” Educational Theory 51, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 451-66.

Jonathan W. Warren, “Masters in the Field: White Talk, White Privilege, White Biases,” in Racing Research, Researching Race: Methodological Dilemmas in Critical Race Studies, ed. France Winddance Twine and Jonathan W. Warren (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 135-64.

Jonathan W. Warren and France Winddance Twine, “White Americans, the New Minority? Non-Blacks and the Ever-Expanding Boundaries of Whiteness,” Journal of Black Studies 28, no. 2 (November 1997): 200-18.

Chris Weedon, “Race, Racism and the Problem of Whiteness,” in Feminism, Theory and the Politics of Difference (Oxford: Blackwell Pub. Co., 1999), 152-177.

Lois Weis, Amira Proweller, and Craig Centrie, “Re-examining ‘A Moment in History’: Loss of Privilege inside White Working-Class Masculinity in the 1990s,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 210-26.

David T. Wellman, Portraits of White Racism, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). [orig. 1977]

David Wellman, “Minstrel Shows, Affirmative Action Talk, and Angry White Men: Marking Racial Otherness in the 1990s,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 311-331.

Robert St. Martin Westley, “White Normativity and the Rhetoric of Equal Protection,” in Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed. Lewis R. Gordon (New York: Routledge, 1997), 91-98.

Jack E. White, “Prejudice? Perish the Thought,” Time 153, no. 9 (March 8, 1999): 36.

Whiteness Studies: Beyond the Pale http://www.uwm.edu/People/gjay/Whiteness/ [web site]

Whiteness Theory [web mailing list]. http://www.pauahtun.org/mailman/listinfo/whitenesstheory

Robyn Wiegman, “Whiteness Studies and the Paradox of Particularity,” Boundary 2 vol. 26, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 115-50.

Stephanie M. Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness and Latina/o Critical Theory,” Harvard Latino Law Review 2, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 307-16. Reprinted as Stephanie M. Wildman, “Reflections on Whiteness: The Case of Latinos(as)” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 323-26.

Stephanie M. Wildman, with Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne D. Davis, and Trina Grillo, Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Privilege Undermines America (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Sidney M. Willhelm, “Equality: America’s Racist Ideology,” in The Death of White Sociology, ed. Joyce A. Ladner (New York: Random House, 1973), 136-57.

Patricia J. Williams, “The Ethnic Scarring of American Whiteness,” in The House that Race Built, ed. Wahneema Lubiano (New York: Vintage, 1998), 253-63.

Walter E. Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 409-15. [against whiteness theory]

John S. Wills, “Who Needs Multicultural Education? White Students, U.S. History, and the Construction of a Usable Past,” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 27, no. 3 (September 1996): 365-89.

Howard Winant, “Behind Blue Eyes: Whiteness and Contemporary US Racial Politics,” New Left Review no. 225 (Sept./Oct. 1997): 73-88.

Tim Wise, “Columbine High: Blinded by the White,” Z Magazine 12, no. 6 (June 1999): 4-7.

Carter Godwin Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1933/1972).

Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, eds., White Trash: Race and Class in America (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Michelle Young and Jerry Rosiek, “Interrogating Whiteness,” Educational Researcher 29, no. 2 (March 2000): 39-44. [Review of White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America]

Robert Young, White Mythologies: Writing History and the West (London: Routledge, 1990).

George Yúdice, “Neither Impugning nor Disavowing Whiteness Does a Viable Politics Make: The Limits of Identity Politics,” in After Political Correctness: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s, ed. Christopher Newfield and Ronald Strickland (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 255-85.
 
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